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引用本文:侯增谦1 莫宣学2 杨志明1 王安建3 潘桂棠4 曲晓明5 聂凤军5. 青藏高原碰撞造山带成矿作用:构造背景、时空分布和主要类型[J]. 中国地质, 2006, 33(2): 340-351.
HOU Zeng-qian1, MO Xuan-xue2, YANG Zhi-ming1, WANG An-jian3, PAN Gui-tang4, QU Xiao-ming5, NIE Feng-jun5. Metallogeneses in the collisional orogen of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau:Tectonic setting, tempo-spatial distribution and ore deposit types[J]. Geology in China, 2006, 33(2): 340-351(in Chinese with English abstract).
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青藏高原碰撞造山带成矿作用:构造背景、时空分布和主要类型
侯增谦1 莫宣学2 杨志明1 王安建3 潘桂棠4 曲晓明5 聂凤军5
作者单位
侯增谦1 莫宣学2 杨志明1 王安建3 潘桂棠4 曲晓明5 聂凤军5 1. 中国地质科学院地质研究所北京 1000372. 中国地质大学北京 1000833. 中国地质科学院北京 1000374. 中国地质调查局成都地质矿产研究所四川 成都 6100825. 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所北京 100037 
摘要:
提要:大陆成矿作用是当代区域成矿学研究的重大前沿,增进对大陆碰撞造山带成矿作用的理解和认识是孕育和建立大陆成矿理论框架的核心和关键。长期以来,由于对系统完整地记录大陆碰撞过程的典型造山带的成矿作用缺乏深入系统的研究,对碰撞造山过程及壳/幔相互作用与成矿作用的耦合关系和成因联系缺乏深刻的理解,导致了对碰撞成矿阶段以及各阶段动力学过程认识不清,引发了较多争议。青藏高原造山带,成矿规模大、形成时代新、矿床类型多、保存条件好,为系统地研究大陆成矿作用、解决上述存在的问题提供了天然实验室。“印度—亚洲主碰撞带成矿作用”973项目组通过对青藏高原碰撞造山带成矿作用历时3年的系统研究,建立了青藏高原重要成矿事件的时空坐标,初步建立了成矿作用的地球动力学模型或构造控制模型,提出了一套完整的大陆碰撞带成矿理论新框架,包括三大成矿作用和12种矿床类型:同碰撞造山成矿作用(65~41 Ma,4种矿床类型),晚碰撞转换成矿作用(40~26Ma,4种矿床类型),后碰撞伸展成矿作用(25~0 Ma,4种矿床类型)。其主控因素分别为:碰撞造山背景、壳源岩浆活动和大规模剪切变形;陆内转换背景、幔源岩浆活动和大规模走滑-推覆-剪切作用;后碰撞伸展环境、壳/幔岩浆作用和热液对流系统。
关键词:  造山带  成矿作用  矿床类型  时空分布  主控因素  青藏高原
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展规划“973”项目(2002CB412600)资助。
Metallogeneses in the collisional orogen of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau:Tectonic setting, tempo-spatial distribution and ore deposit types
HOU Zeng-qian1, MO Xuan-xue2, YANG Zhi-ming1, WANG An-jian3, PAN Gui-tang4, QU Xiao-ming5, NIE Feng-jun5
Abstract:
Abstract:Metallogeny of continents is an important research frontier in the contemporaneous metallogenic study, and its theoretical framework is conceived and established by gaining a deep knowledge and understanding of metallogeny in the continental collisional orogen. For a long time, geologists cannot reach a common view on the stages of collisional metallogeny and dynamic process in various stages because of a poor understanding of metallogeny in typical collisional orogens and coupling and genetic relations between the collisional orogenic process and crust/mantle interaction on the one hand and metallogenesis on the other. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau orogen, which is characterized by the occurrence of large-scale, intense and young mineralization as well as many types of large and well-preserved deposit, is regarded as an ideal natural laboratory for studying ore-forming processes on continents and solving the above-mentioned problems. Through three years of systematical research on the metallogeny in the collisional orogen of the plateau, our project team has established a temporal-spatial framework of major mineralization events on the plateau, proposed a model of geodynamics and tectonic constraints on the ore-forming processes and put forward a set of complete theories on metallogeny in the collisional orogen. Three ore-forming processes and twelve deposit types are proposed in the new theories;they are:(1) metallogeny in the period of syn-collisional orogeny (65–41 Ma, four deposit types);(2) metallogeny in the period of late-collisional transformation (40–26 Ma, four deposit types);and (3) metallogeny in the period of post-collisional crustal extension (25–0 Ma, four deposit types). The corresponding key factors controlling the ore-forming processes are:(1) collisional orogenic setting, crustal magmatic activity and large-scale shear deformation;(2) intercontinental plate transformation setting, mantle-derived magmatic activity and large-scale strike-slip motion-nappe thrusting-shear deformation;and (3) post-collisional crustal extension setting, crust/mantle magmatic activity and hydrothermal convection system.
Key words:  orogen  metallogeny  ore deposit type  temporal-spatial distribution  key controlling factor  Qinghai-Tibet Plateau