铌、钽矿产分布较广。内生铌钽矿成矿类型主要为伟晶岩型、稀有金属花岗岩型、碳酸岩型和碱性岩型；外生矿床多为内生矿床经过风化和沉积等外生作用发生二次富集的风化壳型和残坡积、冲积砂矿型。从成矿时代来看，伟晶岩型矿床成矿时代跨度较大，从3.08 Ga到0.19 Ga；碱性岩型矿床主要成矿期分别在2.25~1.35 Ga和0.75~0.19 Ga；碳酸岩型矿床成矿期主要分布在0.75~0.6 Ga和0.4~0.35 Ga；花岗岩型主要分布在0.75~0.19 Ga的中晚期。碳酸岩型铌矿床和伟晶岩型钽矿床是目前勘探的主要目标。
Niobium and tantalum resources are widely distributed in the world. Their endogenous metallogenic deposits are mainly hosted in pegmatite, rare-metal granite, carbonatite, and alkaline rocks. Their exogenetic deposits are mostly the products of secondary enrichment through exogenous processes such as weathering and deposition from endogenous deposits. The metallogenic epoch of pegmatite-hosted deposits has a large span from 3.08 Ga to 0.19 Ga; alkaline rock-hosted deposits are at 2.25-1.35 Ga and 0.75-0.19 Ga respectively; carbonatite-hosted deposits are mainly in 0.75-0.6 Ga and 0.4-0.35 Ga; and granite-hosted deposits are mainly distributed in the middle and late stages of 0.75-0.19 Ga. At present, carbonatite-hosted niobium deposits and pegmatite-hosted tantalum deposits are the main exploration targets.
姚春彦,王天刚,倪培,姚仲友,郭维民,朱意萍,王威. 铌钽矿床类型、特征与研究进展[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(6): 1748-1758.
YAO Chunyan, WANG Tiangang, NI Pei, YAO Zhongyou, GUO Weimin, ZHU Yiping, WANG Wei. Metallogenic types, characteristics and research progress of Nb-Ta deposits[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(6): 1748-1758(in Chinese with English abstract).