贵州三穗铀矿床矿石矿物学特征及其对找矿的指示
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P619.4

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国家自然科学基金和贵州喀斯特科学研究中心联合项目(U1812402)及贵州省基础性公益性项目(黔国土资发[2012]294-2),黔国土资发[2015]4号)共同资助。


Ore mineralogical characteristics of Sansui uranium deposit in Guizhou Province, China and indication for prospecting
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    摘要:

    三穗铀矿床位于黔中—湘西北铀成矿带内,产于震旦—寒武系老堡组炭质泥岩中,是贵州省近年勘查发现的第一个大型铀矿床。[研究目的]鉴于黔东地区铀矿成矿规律、富集机理及矿石矿物学等研究程度低,查明典型铀矿床矿石矿物组合及化学组分,探讨成矿环境,揭示成矿过程,深化成矿理论认识,将为促进区域成矿预测、扩大找矿勘查成果及丰富该类型铀矿成矿理论提供科学依据。[研究方法]基于三穗铀矿床地质、地球化学特征,通过电子探针、扫描电镜等测试,分析了铀成矿机理及成岩成矿的环境演化。[研究结果]本区含铀岩系老堡组形成于震旦纪/寒武纪转折期的陆缘裂谷和陆缘裂陷缺氧还原环境,铀成矿初始物源与海底火山活动有关;铀矿石主要由铀矿物、铁矿物、黏土矿物、有机质及白云石、石英(或玉髓)、重晶石、方解石等组成,呈微晶—隐晶结构、微晶—粉晶晶粒状结构,层状、纹层状构造;铀矿物丰富,主要有沥青铀矿、硅钙铀矿、硒铅铀矿、钛铀矿、磷铀矿及水碳铀等,以纳米—微米级粒状、柱状(粒径多<10 μm)、细脉状、或隐晶质形式赋存于有机质、铁质、黏土矿物等聚铀矿物中。[结论]三穗铀矿床形成物源具有多源性,与雪峰期海底火山作用带来部分成矿物质、燕山—喜马拉雅期成矿流体在运移的途中不断浸取地层内的成矿物质密切相关,经历了铀初始富集、氧化淋滤及热液叠加再富集过程,成因属典型的碳硅泥岩型。三穗铀矿床中发现大量铀矿物显示,铀富集程度高、成矿作用强,找矿远景好、潜力大。
    创新点:基于三穗铀矿床地质地球化学特征,通过电子探针、扫描电镜等矿物学研究,揭示本区铀成岩成矿的环境演化及成矿机理,探讨了找矿远景。

    Abstract:

    This paper is the result of mineral exploration engineering. The Sansui deposit is located in the uranium metallogenic belt between central Guizhou and northwest Hunan Province. It is the first large uranium deposit discovered in Guizhou Province in recent years. The uranium deposit situates in the carbonaceous mudstone of Laobao Formation of Sinian-Cambrian and is stratified and like stratified.
    [Objective] The purpose of this paper is to find out the ore and mineral composition of Sansui uranium deposit, explore the uranium mineralization environment, reveal the mineralization process of uranium initial enrichment, leaching, superposition and re-enrichment, and provide new information for regional metallogenic prediction, ore exploration and enrichment of this type of uranium ore-forming theory.
    [Methods] The study on mineral mineralogy and geological characteristics of ore deposits shows that
    [Results](1) The Laobao Formation of uranium-bearing rocks was formed in the anoxic reduction environment of the continental margin rift and continental margin rifting during the Sinian/Cambrian transitional period. (2) The uranium ore is mainly composed of uranium mineral, iron ore, clay mineral, organic matter, dolomite, quartz (or chalcedite), barite, calcite, etc., with microcrystal-cryptocrystal structure, microcrystal-powder grain structure, layered and lamellar structure. (3) The uranium ore is rich in uranium minerals, mainly pitchblende, silica-calcined uranium ore, selenium-lead uranium ore, titanium-uranium ore, phosphorus uranium ore and water-carbon uranium, etc. They occur in the form of nano-micron granule, column (particle size <10 microns), veinlet, or in the form of cryptocrystalline occurrence in the organic matter, iron, clay minerals and other uranium minerals. (4) The constant element in the ore were enriched in SiO2, CaO and LOI (burning loss), which was consistent with the rich silica, calcium and organic minerals.
    [Conclusions]The uranium source of the Sansui deposit was related to the submarine volcanic eruption, spillage during the Xuefeng period and the weathering and leaching of uranium-bearing geological bodies. Mineralization and its associated trace elements such as U, V, Mo, Cd, Se, Ni, Zn, etc. are significantly enriched, which is related to the fact that some ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids are continuously leaching ore-forming materials in the strata during the process of submarine volcanic eruption and spill.
    Highlights: Ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids of the Sansui deposit are continuously leaching ore-forming materials in the strata during the process of submarine volcanic eruption and spill.

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引用本文

金中国,刘开坤,郑明泓,罗开,杨胜发,淳果,王琼,范云飞. 贵州三穗铀矿床矿石矿物学特征及其对找矿的指示[J]. 中国地质, 2022, 49(4): 1236-1249.
JIN Zhongguo, LIU Kaikun, ZHENG Minghong, LUO Kai, YANG Shengfa, CHUN Guo, WANG Qiong, FAN Yunfei. Ore mineralogical characteristics of Sansui uranium deposit in Guizhou Province, China and indication for prospecting[J]. Geology in China, 2022, 49(4): 1236-1249(in Chinese with English abstract).

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  • 收稿日期:2019-10-08
  • 最后修改日期:2019-12-11
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-09-09
  • 出版日期: 2022-08-20
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