【研究目的】 近年来，中国地质调查局部署实施了173口页岩气勘查井，完成31万余米进尺，重点开展长江经济带页岩气调查科技攻坚战，取得了震旦系、寒武系和志留系页岩气调查的重大突破和二叠系页岩气调查重要发现，开辟了页岩气勘查的新区、新层系、新类型和新认识。基础地质调查井作为油气发现的重要手段，可实现全井段取心，具有成本低、周期短等特点，一般部署在邻井资料缺乏的勘探空白区。【研究方法】 为了给页岩气调查提供钻井工程方面的技术支持，本文梳理了十年来中国地质调查局部署实施的钻井工程，对取得的一系列钻井技术进行了分类和归纳整理。【研究结果】 总结了一整套在地质钻探装备与技术基础上创新发展的高效页岩气钻井装备与技术体系：（1）形成了页岩气地质调查井地面装备，包括适应于页岩气井井控安全的改进型立轴钻机、符合绿色勘探要求的钻井液固控循环系统等；（2）高效取心工具及钻进工艺，重点介绍了大直径绳索取心钻具、KT系列取心钻具等取心钻具，倒塔式钻具组合工艺、空气跟管技术等钻进工艺等；（3）阐述了高效取心钻头研究进展，包括异形齿PDC钻头、孕镶块钻头、孕镶金刚石钻头等3类钻头及其应用效果；（4）简要论述了安全钻井技术及复杂处理进展，介绍了页岩气勘探钻井液技术、控压钻进技术以及失返、卡钻等钻井复杂处理。此外，围绕新区新层系页岩气勘探特点，给出下一步开展页岩气钻井技术研究的方向。【结论】 通过综述上述研究进展，可为页岩气勘探钻井工程设计和施工提供有益参考。
This paper is the result of oil and gas survey engineering.
[Objective] Focusing on the scientific and technological task of shale gas investigation in the Yangtze River economic belt, China Geological Survey has deployed and implemented 173 shale gas exploration wells, completed more than 310000 m of drilling footage in recent years. Major breakthroughs in the shale gas investigation of Sinian system, Cambrian system, and Silurian system, and important discoveries in the shale gas investigation of Permian system has been achieved. It opened new areas, new strata, new types, and new insights of shale gas exploration. The basic geological survey wells are used to drill cores with low cost and short cycle. They are generally deployed in new blocks and new strata with insufficient data from adjacent wells. Aiming to provide technical support in drilling engineering for shale gas investigation.
[Methods] This article analyzes the related research progress of drilling projects deployed and implemented by China Geological Survey over the past decade, and a series of drilling technologies achieved have been classified and summarized.
[Results] The high-efficiency shale gas drilling equipment and technology system based on the innovative development of geological drilling equipment and technology are summarized:(1) Surface equipment for shale gas geological survey wells has been formed, including improved vertical shaft drilling rig suitable for well control safety of shale gas wells, drilling fluid solid control circulation system meeting the requirements of green exploration, etc.; (2) High-efficiency coring tools and drilling technology, focusing on the coring tools such as large-diameter wireline coring tools, KT series coring tools, inverted tower drilling tool assembly technology, air pipe following technology, etc.; (3) The research progress of high efficiency coring bits is described, including three types of bits, such as special-tooth PDC bits, impregnated block bits and impregnated diamond bits, and their application effects; (4) The progress of safe drilling technology and complex treatment is briefly discussed. The shale gas exploration drilling fluid technology, pressure control drilling technology, and drilling complex treatment such as lost return and sticking is introduced. In addition, the direction of shale gas drilling technology research is given.
[Conclusions] The review of above research progress can provide useful reference for shale gas exploration drilling engineering design and construction.
赵洪波,朱芝同,梁涛,赵志涛,朱迪斯,单文军,刘文武,何远信. 页岩气基础地质调查钻井技术研究进展及展望[J]. 中国地质, 2023, 50(2): 376-394.
ZHAO Hongbo, ZHU Zhitong, LIANG Tao, ZHAO Zhitao, ZHU Disi, SHAN Wenjun, LIU Wenwu, HE Yuanxin. Shale gas geological survey drilling technologies: Progress and prospect[J]. Geology in China, 2023, 50(2): 376-394(in Chinese with English abstract).