【研究目的】 保护生态环境，推动可持续发展是各国共同责任。开展全国生态系统服务价值评价有利于促进生态环境保护，建立人与自然和谐共生的现代化。【研究方法】 生态系统服务价值评价已成为生态学领域国际研究热点。本研究基于Costanza等于2014年提出的生态系统服务价值评价方法，运用居民消费指数、人民币和美元购买力指数，建立了生态系统服务价值动态评价模型，基于第三次全国国土调查数据对中国省域生态环境进行评价，并采用热点分析技术研究了中国省域生态系统服务价值空间分布规律。【研究结果】 2019年度中国大陆生态系统服务价值为35.79万亿元人民币。中国青海省属于热点区域，黑龙江省属于次热点区域，贵州省和重庆省属于次冷点区域，陕西省属于冷点区域。【结论】 针对青藏高原地区、东北地区、黄河流域、长江流域和海岸带等“两区三带”地质本底和生态特征，提出开展“山、水、林、田、湖、草、沙”一体化生态地质调查建议：一是在青藏高原生态屏障区开展冰川冻土消融、草原退化和土地沙化调查；二是在东北地区开展森林质量、生态多样性和湿地资源调查；三是在黄河流域开展上游生态退化、中游水土流失和下游湿地萎缩调查；四是在长江流域开展上游水源涵养、中游岩溶地区石漠化和水土流失调查及下游河湖湿地退化调查；五是重点调查海岸线岸滩海浪侵蚀和红树林等典型海洋生态系统调查。
This paper is the result of ecological geological survey engineering.
[Objective] It is the common responsibility of all countries to protect the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development. The nationwide evaluation of ecosystem service is conducive to the promotion of ecological environment protection and the establishment of the modernization of harmonious coexistence between human and nature.
[Methods] The study on the evaluation of ecosystem service has become a hot topic in the field of ecological sciences. Based on the evaluation method of ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al. in 2014, this study establishes a dynamic evaluation model of ecosystem service by using the Consumer Price Index, the Purchasing Power Indexes of US dollar and Chinese RMB, which is used to evaluate the ecological system services of Chinese provincial land with the data of the Third National Land Survey, and studies the spatial distribution of ecosystem service value of Chinese provincial land via Hotspot analysis technique.
[Results] The value of ecological system services of Chinese mainland in 2019 is 35.79 trillion RMB. Qinghai province is located in a hotspot area, Heilongjiang province is located in a sub-hotspot area, Guizhou province and Chongqing municipality are located in sub-Coldspot, and Shannxi Province is located in Coldspot area.
[Conclusions] In terms of the geological background and ecological characteristics of the so-called "Two Zones and Three Belts" which involve the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Northeast zone, Yellow River basin, Yangtze River basin, and coastal zone, we propose to carry out the integrated ecological geological survey of mountain, water, forest, cropland, lake, grass, and sand. The first is to carry out investigation on glacier melting and permafrost thaw, degradation of grasslands and desertification of land in Qinghai-Tibet area. The second is to carry out investigation on forest quality, ecological diversity, and wetland resources in Northeast China. The third is to carry out investigation on ecological degradation in the upstream, water and soil loss in the midstream, and the wetlands shrinkage in the downstream of the Yellow River. The fourth is to carry out investigation on water conservation in the upstream, the rocky desertification and soil erosion of Karst area in the midstream, and wetlands degradation in the downstream of the-Yangtze River. The fifth is to focus on the investigation of typical marine ecosystems such as coastal erosion and mangroves.
孙张涛,余正伟,舒思齐,许闯胜,舒阳. 中国省域生态系统服务价值评价与生态地质调查工作建议[J]. 中国地质, 2023, 50(2): 479-494.
SUN Zhangtao, YU Zhengwei, SHU Siqi, XU Chuangsheng, SHU Yang. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese provincial land and suggestions for ecological geological survey[J]. Geology in China, 2023, 50(2): 479-494(in Chinese with English abstract).