【研究目的】 测度并分析黄河流域城市土地利用效率的时空格局特征是全面实现黄河流域生态保护与高质量发展的内在需求。【研究方法】 本文以黄河流域83个地级市为研究对象，基于2004—2017年的市级投入产出数据，构建随机前沿模型和空间关联模型，测度并分析城市土地利用效率的时空集聚演化特征。【研究结果】 2004—2017年黄河流域城市土地利用效率呈现明显的增长趋势，上游增长快，中、下游增长慢，整体仍处于中低水平；黄河流域城市土地利用效率的空间分布差异较大，但城市群中心城市的引领作用逐渐凸显，高效率区域（一、二类）逐渐由“斑点”状扩张为“斑块”状，中、低效率区域逐渐缩小，城市群间、上中下游间的土地利用效率空间分布差异逐步收敛；黄河流域城市土地利用效率存在空间正相关，且集聚特征逐年增强。LISA（局部空间自相关）空间形态呈现两极分化的特征，高效率均质区域（H-H类型）主要分布在山东半岛，且逐渐聚集成片，中原城市群首次出现H-H集聚区；低-高关联（L-H类型）由山东潍坊市转变为内蒙古巴彦淖尔市；高-低关联（H-L类型）分布在兰州市；低效率均质区域（L-L类型）分布在六盘山区、秦巴山区等国家级集中连片贫困区。【结论】 建议黄河流域在整体上要统一规划，协调发展，个体上注重城市发展的内生动力，优化资本投资规模与结构，充分发挥中心城市的空间溢出效应，资源合理配置共享，且对上、中、下游区域实行差异化生态保护和高质量发展政策，更好地服务于黄河流域城市经济发展由劳动密集型和资本依赖型向技术驱动型转变。
This paper is the result of comprehensive survey engineering of natural resources.
[Objective] It is the inherent demand of ecological protection and high-quality development to measure and analyze the spatio-temporal differentiation of urban land use efficiency in the Yellow River basin.
[Methods] Based on municipal input-output data from 2004-2017, we introduce SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) and Spatial Association Model to measure the urban land use efficiency of 83 cities located in the Yellow River basin.
[Results] The urban land use efficiency of the Yellow River Basin showed an obvious increasing trend during 2004 to 2017. The efficiency growth rate of cities in the upper reaches of the Yellow River basin is faster than that of cities in the middle and lower reaches. The efficiency was still in the middle and low level across the whole area.It still presented great differences of the urban land-use efficiency across the whole the Yellow River basin, but the leadership of central cities played a tremendous role in the urban agglomeration, and the high-efficiency areas (first and second types) were gradually expanding from "Spots" to "Patches", while the middle and low-efficiency areas gradually reduced. The differences of inter-urban agglomeration and differences among the upper, middle and lower reaches gradually converged. The land use efficiency among cities had positive spatial correlation and the agglomeration level was enhanced year by year. The Lisa (local indicators of spatial association) was characterized by polarization. Not only the High-High agglomeration (H-H type) area were mainly distributed in Shandong Peninsula, and gradually clustered into pieces, but also it appeared in the Central Plain urban agglomeration for the first time. The areas with a Low-High agglomeration (L-H type) pattern were transformed from Weifang, Shandong Province to Bayannur, Inner Mongolia. And the High-Low agglomeration areas(H-L type) were concentrated in Lanzhou. The Low-Low agglomeration (L-L type) areas were distributed in the national-level concentrated contiguous poverty areas such as Liupan Mountain area and Qinba Mountain area.
[Conclusions] It is suggested that as a whole, the Yellow River basin should be planned and developed in a coordinated way, and more attenion should be paid to the endogenous impetus of urban development individually. The spatial spillover effect which the central cities make-should be given full play to, and resources should be allocated and shared rationally through the optimization of the scale and structure of capital investments. In addition, to better serve the transformation of urban economic development from labor-intensive and capital-dependent to technology-driven, the policy of differentiated ecological protection and high-quality development should be implemented in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin.
王鹏,赵君,阎晓娟,杨涛,张晶,马尚伟,张道军. 动态时空视角下黄河流域城市土地利用效率的集聚演化特征[J]. 中国地质, 2023, 50(2): 506-520.
WANG Peng, ZHAO Jun, YAN Xiaojuan, YANG Tao, ZHANG Jing, MA Shangwei, ZHANG Daojun. Agglomeration and evolution characteristics of urban land-use efficiency under a dynamic spatio-temporal perspective in the Yellow River Basin[J]. Geology in China, 2023, 50(2): 506-520(in Chinese with English abstract).