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引用本文:熊小松,高锐,酆少英,李英康,黄兴富,陈宣华,常玉举. 榆木山构造带深部结构及隆升成因[J]. 中国地质, 2019, 46(5): 1039-1051.
XIONG Xiaosong,GAO Rui,FENG Shaoying,LI Yingkang,HUANG Xinfu,CHEN Xuanhua,CHANG Yuju. Deep structure of Yumushan tectonic zone and genesis of the uplift[J]. Geology in China, 2019, 46(5): 1039-1051(in Chinese with English abstract).
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榆木山构造带深部结构及隆升成因
熊小松1, 高锐2,3, 酆少英4, 李英康5, 黄兴富3, 陈宣华1, 常玉举6
1.中国地质调查局-中国地质科学院地球深部探测中心, 北京 100037;2.中国地质科学院地质研究所, 北京 100037;3.中山大学地球科学与工程学院, 广东 广州 510275;4.中国地震局地球物理勘探中心, 河南 郑州 450002;5.国土资源实物地质资料中心, 河北 三河 065201;6.中石化石油工程地球物理有限公司华北分公司, 河南 郑州 450016
摘要:
新生代以来,欧亚与印度两大板块间的碰撞拼合及后续的汇聚挤压塑造了现今青藏高原的高海拔地形地貌和巨厚地壳。位于青藏高原最北缘的榆木山构造带,其内部构造变形的几何学和运动学特征记录了地球最新演化历史过程中,构造、剥蚀和气候变化之间的复杂关系。长期以来,其构造成因和属性一直存在争议。本文通过对最近完成的深地震反射剖面的初步处理,其反射剖面初步揭示了榆木山构造带的深部地壳结构:榆木山构造带之下莫霍面深度为45~48 km,整体由北向南加深;同时,深部反射和地表层析速度成像结果显示榆木山下方存在明显的反射透明区、高速异常体,结合地表地质调查,推测其可能为花岗岩体,同早古生代祁连洋的闭合有关;在榆木山构造带之下存在明显的壳内滑脱面,推测其隆升受控于两条背向逆冲断裂带的控制。本文同时结合其他地质地球物理资料,初步提出了青藏高原北缘的演化模型,为青藏高原北缘的向北扩展、盆山耦合及块体间关系提供了新的思路。
关键词:  祁连造山带  榆木山构造带  深部结构  隆升成因  深地勘查工程
DOI:10.12029/gc20190506
分类号:P54
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41774114,41574093,41590860)、中国地质调查局项目(DD20179342,DD20160083)和国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0600302)联合资助。
Deep structure of Yumushan tectonic zone and genesis of the uplift
XIONG Xiaosong1, GAO Rui2,3, FENG Shaoying4, LI Yingkang5, HUANG Xinfu3, CHEN Xuanhua1, CHANG Yuju6
1.Sinoprobe Center, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and China Geological Survey, Beijing 100037, China;2.Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, 100037, China;3.School of Earth Science and Geological Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, China;4.Geophysical Exploration Center, China Earthquake Administration, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan, China;5.Geological Information Center, Ministry of Land and Resources, Yanjiao, 065201, Hebei, China;6.North China Branch, Petroleum Engineering Geophysics Co., Ltd., SINOPEC, Zhengzhou 450016, Henan, China
Abstract:
Since early Cenozoic, the collision and ongoing continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates have resulted in the high elevation and thick crust of the Tibetan Plateau. Yumushan thrust belt is located at the north front of the Qilian Mountain, and is the newest joined part of the Tibetan Plateau. Its geometry and kinematics of the crustal deformation recorded the complex relationship between the tectonics, erosion and climate change of the newest evolution of the earth. The deep structure and uplift mechanism have been controversial for a long time. In this paper, the authors unraveled the crustal structure of the Yumushan thrust belt by the newest acquired deep seismic reflection profile. The Moho depth beneath the Yumushan belt is 45-48 km with a shallower trend to the north; the deep reflection structure and subsurface tomography velocity structure show the apparent transparent zone and high velocity zone beneath the Yumushan, which may represent the intrusion of a large amount of granitoids beneath the Yumushan related to the closure of the Qilian Ocean in early Paleozoic, and the uplift was driven by two back-back thrust faults. Combined with other geological and geophysical data, the authors propose a new growth pattern in the northmost Tibetan Plateau, which may shed some light on the northward growth as well as the basin-range coupling relation.
Key words:  Qilian orogeny  Yumushan thrust belt  deep structure  uplift mechanism  deep exploration engineering