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引用本文:程湘,胡鹏,张海坤,姜军胜. 锰矿主要类型、分布特点及开发现状[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(1): 102-119.
CHENG Xiang,HU Peng,ZHANG Haikun,JIANG Junsheng. The main types, distribution and current development of manganese ore deposits[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(1): 102-119(in Chinese with English abstract).
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锰矿主要类型、分布特点及开发现状
程湘, 胡鹏, 张海坤, 姜军胜
中国地质调查局武汉地质调查中心, 湖北 武汉 430205
摘要:
锰的用途非常广泛,世界上90%~95%的锰应用于冶金工业,其余应用于电池工业、陶瓷工业、化学工业等。根据成矿作用过程中的含矿岩系特征,将世界锰矿划分为海相沉积型、火山(热液)-沉积型、变质型、热液型和表生型5类,以海相沉积型、变质型和表生型为主。截至2019年,世界锰的储量达8.12亿t,但分布极不均匀,主要集中在南非、巴西、乌克兰、澳大利亚、加蓬、中国、印度、加纳等国,而优质锰矿石主要分布在南非、澳大利亚、加蓬、加纳。时间上,将锰的成矿作用分为7期,其中元古宙和新生代是主要的成矿期。空间上,锰矿床主要分布在南非德兰士瓦群、乌克兰尼科波尔盆地、澳大利亚格鲁特岛和皮尔巴拉克拉通、中国泛扬子区、西非克拉通等。目前,锰的生产主要集中在南非的卡拉哈里和波斯特马斯堡锰矿田、澳大利亚的格鲁特岛、加蓬的莫安达锰矿、加纳的恩苏塔锰矿等地。
关键词:  锰矿  类型  分布  开发
DOI:10.12029/gc20210107
分类号:P618.32
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目(DD20201153)资助。
The main types, distribution and current development of manganese ore deposits
CHENG Xiang, HU Peng, ZHANG Haikun, JIANG Junsheng
Wuhan Center of China Geological Survey, Wuhan 430205, China
Abstract:
Manganese is widely used, 90%~95% of the world's manganese is used in the metallurgical industry, the rest in the battery industry, ceramic industry, chemical industry and so on. According to the characteristics of ore-bearing rocks in the process of mineralization, the world manganese deposits are divided into five types, including marine sedimentary type, volcanic (hydrothermal)-sedimentary type, metamorphic type, hydrothermal type and supergene type, with marine sedimentary type, metamorphic type and supergene type as the main ones. By the end of 2019, the worldwide manganese reserves had reached up to 812 million tons, but their distribution is extremely uneven, mainly concentrated in South Africa, Brazil, Ukraine, Australia, Gabon, China, India, Ghana and so on, while the high quality manganese ores are mainly distributed in South Africa, Australia, Gabon and Ghana. The mineralization epoch of manganese can be divided into 7 periods, of which Proterozoic and Cenozoic are of great importance. Manganese deposits are spatially concentrated in the Transvaal Supergroup of South Africa, the Nikopol ore Basin in Ukraine, the Groote Eylandt and Pilbara Craton of Australia, the Pan-Yangtze area of China, the West African Craton. At present, manganese ore production is mainly concentrated in Kalahari and Postmasburg ore fields in South Africa, Groote Island in Australia, Moanda mine in Gabon and Nsuta mine in Ghana.
Key words:  manganese  type  distribution  development