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引用本文:姜月华,倪化勇,周权平,程知言,段学军,朱志敏,吴吉春,任海彦,范晨子,杨晋炜,陈超,胡建,王晓龙,姜夏烨,刘永兵,杨海,郭威,冯乃琦,魏广庆,金阳,杨辉,刘林,梅世嘉,张鸿,陈澎军,袁继海,齐秋菊,吕劲松,顾轩,刘鹏. 长江经济带生态修复示范关键技术及其应用[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(5): 1305-1333.
JIANG Yuehua,NI Huayong,ZHOU Quanping,CHENG Zhiyan,DUAN Xuejun,ZHU Zhimin,WU Jichun,REN Haiyan,FAN Chenzi,YANG Jinwei,CHEN Chao,HU Jian,WANG Xiaolong,JIANG Xiaye,LIU Yongbing,YANG Hai,GUO Wei,FENG Naiqi,WEI Guangqing,JIN Yang,YANG Hui,LIU Lin,MEI Shijia,ZHANG Hong,CHEN Pengjun,YUAN Jihai,QI Qiuju,Lü Jinsong,GU Xuan,LIU Peng. Key technology of ecological restoration demonstration in the Yangtze River Economic Zone and its application[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(5): 1305-1333(in Chinese with English abstract).
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长江经济带生态修复示范关键技术及其应用
姜月华1,2, 倪化勇3, 周权平1,2, 程知言4, 段学军5, 朱志敏6, 吴吉春7, 任海彦8, 范晨子9, 杨晋炜10, 陈超6, 胡建10, 王晓龙5, 姜夏烨10, 刘永兵9, 杨海1,2, 郭威9, 冯乃琦11, 魏广庆12, 金阳1,2, 杨辉1,2, 刘林1,2, 梅世嘉1,2, 张鸿1,2, 陈澎军10, 袁继海9, 齐秋菊1,2, 吕劲松1,2, 顾轩1,2, 刘鹏1,2
1.中国地质调查局南京地质调查中心, 江苏 南京 210016;2.自然资源部流域生态地质过程重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210016;3.中国地质科学院探矿工艺研究所, 四川 成都 611734;4.江苏省地质矿产勘查局, 江苏 南京 210018;5.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 江苏 南京 210008;6.中国地质科学院矿产综合利用研究所, 四川 成都 610041;7.南京大学, 江苏 南京 210023;8.南京农业大学, 江苏 南京 210095;9.国家地质实验测试中心, 北京 100037;10.江苏省有色金属华东地质勘查局, 江苏 南京 210007;11.中国地质科学院郑州矿产综合利用研究所, 河南 郑州 450006;12.苏州南智传感科技有限公司, 江苏 苏州 215124
摘要:
围绕长江大保护,笔者近年探索形成滨海盐碱地、长江滨岸湿地、沿江化工污染场地、重金属污染场地和废弃矿山等5种类型生态修复示范关键技术,取得重要进展和应用成效:(1)探索形成南通滨海盐碱地"工程、结构、生物和农艺改良"等关键技术体系,建立了盐碱地水-盐运移环境实时动态监测体系,实现海水稻、玉米和油菜等系列农产品产业化,有效服务沿海地区盐碱地优质利用与国土空间规划。(2)提出江苏启东长江沿江湿地"生境优化、植物优选、多样性调控"综合生态修复技术,形成湿地休闲观光区、湿地生物多样性保护区和湿地尾水深度净化区等三大生态功能区,修复成果取得较好生态与社会效益。(3)创新有机污染探测技术,查明某典型化工园区地下"隐性"污染,精确圈定主要污染物深度,明确以硝基苯、苯、苯胺等为主的污染物类型,提出了污染修复深化建议,得到当地市政府、环保部门采纳建议方案,有效支撑服务有机化工废弃场地再开发。(4)研发耐镉转基因特有植物材料与高效修复功能微生物,探索形成沿江高镉土壤微生物-植物互作修复模式,为下一步微生物改良剂研制和规模化修复奠定重要基础。(5)形成云南安宁磷矿尾矿堆场生态修复和四川攀枝花钒钛磁铁矿尾矿资源化、减量化利用关键技术,有力支撑废弃矿山生态保护修复和尾矿资源化利用。
关键词:  生态修复  盐碱地  湿地  有机污染  镉污染  尾矿  废弃矿山  地质调查工程  长江经济带
DOI:10.12029/gc20210501
分类号:P737.1;TV147
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目(DD20190260、DD20160246)资助。
Key technology of ecological restoration demonstration in the Yangtze River Economic Zone and its application
JIANG Yuehua1,2, NI Huayong3, ZHOU Quanping1,2, CHENG Zhiyan4, DUAN Xuejun5, ZHU Zhimin6, WU Jichun7, REN Haiyan8, FAN Chenzi9, YANG Jinwei10, CHEN Chao6, HU Jian10, WANG Xiaolong5, JIANG Xiaye10, LIU Yongbing9, YANG Hai1,2, GUO Wei9, FENG Naiqi11, WEI Guangqing12, JIN Yang1,2, YANG Hui1,2, LIU Lin1,2, MEI Shijia1,2, ZHANG Hong1,2, CHEN Pengjun10, YUAN Jihai9, QI Qiuju1,2, Lü Jinsong1,2, GU Xuan1,2, LIU Peng1,2
1.Nanjing Center, China Geological Survey, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu, China;2.Key Laboratory of Watershed Eco-Geological Processes, Ministry of Natural Resources, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu, China;3.Institute of Exploration Technology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Chengdu 611734, Sichuan, China;4.Jiangsu Geology & Mineral Exploration Bureau, Nanjing 210018, Jiangsu, China;5.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China;6.Institute of Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China;7.Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China;8.Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China;9.National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037, China;10.East China Mineral Exploration and Development Bureau for Non-ferrous Metals, Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210007, Jiangsu, China;11.Zhengzhou Institute of Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Zhengzhou 450006, Henan, China;12.Suzhou NanZee Sensing Technology Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215124, Jiangsu, China
Abstract:
The key demonstration technology for ecological restoration of five types of ecological environments was explored to protect ecological environment of the Yangtze River, including coastal saline-alkali land, coastal wetland of the Yangtze River, chemical pollution sites along the Yangtze River, heavy metal pollution sites and abandoned mines. Through the construction of "engineering, structure, biology and agronomic improvement" and other key technology systems of coastal saline-alkali land, the real-time dynamic monitoring system of water-salt migration environment in coastal saline-alkali land has been established, and the industrialization of a series of agricultural products such as sea rice, corn and canola has been realized, which effectively serve the high-quality utilization and territorial space planning of coastal saline-alkali land. The comprehensive ecological restoration technology of "habitat optimization, plant selection and diversity control" was proposed for the wetlands along the Yangtze River in Qidong, Jiangsu Province. Three ecological function areas, namely wetland leisure and sightseeing area, wetland biodiversity protection area and wetland tailwater deep purification area, were formed. The restoration results achieved good ecological and social benefits. Some progress and results have been made, including innovation of organic pollution detection technology, identification of underground "hidden" pollution of one typical chemical park, accurate delineation of main pollutants depth, and clarification of aniline nitrobenzene and benzene. The proposed suggestions on deepening pollution remediation have been adopted by the local municipal government and environmental protection departments to effectively support and serve the redevelopment of abandoned organic chemical sites. Develop cadmium-resistant transgenic specific plant materials and highly effective remediation microorganisms were developed to explore the formation of a microbial-plant interaction remediation mode in high-cadmium soil along the Yangtze River, which lay an important foundation for the development of microbial amendments and large-scale remediation in the future. The developed key technologies for ecological restoration of Anning phosphate tailings storage yard in Yunnan and resource utilization and reduction of vanadium titanomagnetite tailings in Panzhihua of Sichuan strongly support ecological protection and restoration of abandoned mines and resource utilization of tailings.
Key words:  ecological restoration  saline-alkali land  wetland  organic pollution  cadmium pollution  tailings  abandoned mines  geological survey engineering  Yangtze River Economic Zone