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引用本文:肖庆辉1 邱瑞照2 伍光英3 邢作云4 张 昱5 童劲松6. 中国东部中生代软流层上涌造山作用[J]. 中国地质, 2006, 33(4): 730-750.
XIAO Qing-hui1, QIU Ruizhao2, WU Guang-ying3, XING Zuo-yun4,ZHANG Yu5, TONG Jin-song5. Mesozoic asthenospheric upwelling orogeny in eastern China[J]. Geology in China, 2006, 33(4): 730-750(in Chinese with English abstract).
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中国东部中生代软流层上涌造山作用
肖庆辉1 邱瑞照2 伍光英3 邢作云4 张 昱5 童劲松61,2,3,4,5,6
1. 中国地质科学院地质研究所,北京 100037;2. 中国地质调查局发展研究中心,北京 100037;3. 宜昌地质矿产研究所,湖北 宜昌443003;4. 中国地质大学,湖北 武汉 430074;5. 中国地质大学,北京 100083;6.6.安徽省地质调查研究院,安徽 合肥 230001
摘要:
提要:中国东部中生代造山带不同于陆缘俯冲作用和陆间大陆碰撞造山带,也不是陆缘和陆间碰撞造山带发展演化的某一个特定阶段的产物。它是一种由深部软流层上涌造山作用形成的一个新类型的造山带,又称东亚型造山作用。它的造山作用过程是:(1)早中生代(230~180 Ma)的前和初始造山幕,深部软流层物质上涌和底侵作用导致冷、强的大陆岩石圈地幔线状破裂与局部拆沉;(2)中、晚侏罗世(180~140 Ma)主造山幕, 软流层大规模上涌并沿着岩石圈底部壳-幔边界横向侵入和伸展,使垂向差异运动转变为水平挤压作用,结果地壳表层发生大规模的褶皱构造变形和推覆构造,使陆壳加厚形成山根,岩石圈根发生部分拆沉;(3)白垩纪(140~65 Ma)的晚期造山幕, 加厚的陆壳山根与岩石圈根的大规模拆沉, 岩石圈进入全新的从挤压向伸展转变和巨大减薄阶段,软流层大规模上涌成山。
关键词:  造山作用  岩石圈  软流层上涌  中国东部
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国土资源部科技计划专项(20001010202,200010103)和中国地质调查局重大基础研究项目(200113900018)共同资助。
Mesozoic asthenospheric upwelling orogeny in eastern China
XIAO Qing-hui1, QIU Ruizhao2, WU Guang-ying3, XING Zuo-yun4,ZHANG Yu5, TONG Jin-song51,2,3,4,5,6
1.Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China;2. Development and Research Center, China Geological Survey, Beijing 100037, China;3.Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Yichang 443003, Hubei , China;4.China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) ,Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China;5. China University of Geosciences (Beijing),Beijing 100083, China;6.6.Anhui Geological Survey, Hefei 230001, Anhui, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Mesozoic orogens in eastern China are different from continental-margin subductional and continent-continent collisional orogens and are not the product in a particular stage of development and evolution of continental-margin and continent-continent collisional orogens either. They are a new type of orogen resulting from orogeny due to asthenospheric upwelling at depth and may be distinguished from plate-margin and continent-continent collisional orogens by their tectonic setting, tectonic framework, tectonic deformation and metamorphism, magmatism and sedimentation and tectonic evolution. We consider that such orogeny caused by asthenospheric upwelling is another orogenic mechanism that is as important as continent-continent collisional and plate-margin subductional orogenies. Therefore the process of formation of orogens by asthenospheric upwelling is termed by us asthenospheric upwelling orogeny or East Asia-type orogeny. Viewing the Da Hinggan orogen, Yanshan orogen and other orogens in eastern China from the lithospheric-asthenospheric deep process, we think that the formation of these orogens is an orogenic event caused by vertically upward dynamic processes originating by asthenospheric upwelling at depth as well as a new orogenic mechanism. The evidence is as follows: (1) the lithosphere-asthenosphere dos not show a typical horizontal layered structure but asthenospheric material commonly occurs as mushroom-shaped upwelling plumes penetrating and intruding into the lithospheric mantle, thus causing the older lithospheric mantle to be extensively dismembered and delaminated and forming a steep contact pattern with the relics of the older mantle; (2) the chronological structure of the lithosphere has the nature of uncoupling, i.e.: the mantle is younger, while the crust is older; (3) mafic-ultramafic rocks generated by underplating and ascending of Mesozoic asthenospheric material along lithospheric fractures are found; (4) magmatism of Mesozoic volcanic-plutonic rocks is different from that of classic subduction-type and continent-continent collision-type magmatic rocks but is related to upwelling of the asthenosphere; and (5) the process of asthenospheric upwelling orogeny has the unique character of evolution from the deep level to shallow level. Asthenospheric upwelling orogeny in eastern China is a global important tectonothermal event and its orogenic process is as follows: (1) before and in the initial orogenic phase in the Early Mesozoic (230-180 Ma), upwelling and underplating of asthenospheric material at depth resulted in linear fracturing and local delamination of the cold and strong continental lithosphere; (2) in the main orogenic phase in the Mid-Late Jurassic (180-140 Ma), due to large-scale upwelling of asthenospheric material and its lateral intrusion and extension along the crust~mantle boundary at the base of the lithosphere, vertical differential movement was transformed into horizontal compression, and thus extensive fold and nappe structures occurred at the crustal surface, causing the continental crust to be thickened into the crustal root and the lithospheric root to be delaminated; and (3) in the late orogenic phase in the Cretaceous (140-80 Ma), with thickening of the continental crustal root and extensive delamination of the lithospheric root, the lithosphere entered a completely new stage of transition from compression to extension and substantial thinning and the asthenosphere upwelled to form mountains.
Key words:  orogeny  eastern in China  lithosphere  asthenosphere upwelling