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  中国地质 2018, Vol. 45 Issue (2): 367-376  
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刘凯, 吴涛涛, 刘金龙, 鲍庆中, 杜守营. 2018. 大兴安岭北段图里河地区满克头鄂博组火山岩年代学及地球化学[J]. 中国地质, 45(2): 367-376.  
LIU Kai, WU Taotao, LIU Jinlong, BAO Qingzhong, DU Shouying. 2018. Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks in Manketou'ebo Formation of Tulihe area, northern Da Hinggan Mountains[J]. Geology in China, 45(2): 367-376. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

大兴安岭北段图里河地区满克头鄂博组火山岩年代学及地球化学
刘凯1, 吴涛涛1, 刘金龙1, 鲍庆中1, 杜守营2    
1. 中国地质调查局沈阳地质调查中心, 辽宁 沈阳 110034;
2. 辽宁环宇矿业咨询有限公司, 辽宁 沈阳 110031
摘要: 对大兴安岭北段图里河地区满克头鄂博组火山岩进行了锆石U-Pb年代学及岩石地球化学研究,以便对其岩石成因和构造背景给予制约。流纹岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年结果表明,该地区满克头鄂博组火山岩形成时代为晚侏罗世(157±1Ma)。该组火山岩具有高硅(SiO2=69.09%~75.92%)、富碱(K2O+Na2O=8.04%~9.23%),贫镁、铁、钙的特征,属高钾钙碱性、偏铝质-弱过铝质岩石;稀土元素配分曲线呈轻稀土富集的右倾形式,(La/Yb)N=5.85~13.53,无铕异常或具有较弱的铕负异常;火山岩样品富集Rb、Th、U、K等大离子亲石元素,亏损Nb、Ta、Ti等高场强元素。Mg#值为12.14~31.01,平均值22,Nb/Ta值(6.67~27.17,平均值12.23),Rb/Sr值(0.35~3.63,平均值1.58),显示火山岩岩浆源区为下地壳。依据岩石地球化学特征、构造判别图解,结合区域构造演化特征,认为满克头鄂博组火山岩形成于蒙古-鄂霍茨克洋闭合的造山后伸展背景。
关键词: 满克头鄂博组    蒙古-鄂霍茨克洋    岩石成因    大兴安岭北段    内蒙古    
中图分类号:P588.14;P595            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2018)02-0367-10
Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks in Manketou'ebo Formation of Tulihe area, northern Da Hinggan Mountains
LIU Kai1, WU Taotao1, LIU Jinlong1, BAO Qingzhong1, DU Shouying2    
1. Shenyang Center of Geological Survey, China Geological Survey, Shenyang 110034, Liaoning, China;
2. Liaoning Huanyu Mining Consulting Corporation, Shenyang 110031, Liaoning, China
Abstract: In this paper, the authors studied the chronology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks in Manketou'ebo Formation of Tulihe area within Da Hinggan Mountains to restrict the petrogenesis and the tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the volcanic rocks formed in (157±1) Ma, suggesting late Jurassic. The geochemical characteristics reveal that these rocks fall into the high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous rhyolite series, characterized by high SiO2 content (69.09%-75.92%), high alkali content (8.04%-9.23%) but low MgO, CaO and Fe2O3 content. The REE patterns reveal that the rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements with significant fractionation of HREE and LREE ((La/Yb)N=5.85-13.53), with no or lightly negative Eu anomaly. Rocks are enriched in LILE such as Rb, Th, U and K, relatively depleted in HFSE such as Nb, Ta and Ti. Mg# ratios vary from 12.14 to 31.01, 22 on average; Nb/Ta ratios vary from 6.67 to 27.17, 12.23 on average; Rb/Sr ratios vary from 0.35 to 3.36, 1.58 on average, implying that the magmatic source was the lower crust. According to the geochemical features, discrimination diagrams of tectonic setting and regional tectonic evolution, the authors hold that the volcanic rocks formed in the post-orogenic extension setting after the closure of Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean.
Key words: Manketou'ebo    Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean    petrogenesis    northern Da Hinggan Mountains    Inner Mongolia    

1 引言

大兴安岭地区是中国火山岩最发育的地区之一,中生代火山岩规模巨大,呈带状或串珠状展布于整个大兴安岭区域,构成了大兴安岭火山岩带的主体。近年来,随着同位素定年手段的发展,积累了大量有关大兴安岭中生代火山岩的高精度锆石U-Pb同位素年龄,并对不同期次火山岩年代学格架划分也取得一定认识(尹志刚等,2005周其林等,2013Zhang et al., 2006, 2010; 孟恩等,2011)。目前,有关大兴安岭中生代火山岩的科学问题主要集中在其岩石成因及构造背景等方面,主要的观点有:地幔柱模式(林强等,1998;葛文春等,2010);蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋闭合后伸展环境(许文良等,2013李宇等,2015纪政等,2015);古太平洋板块俯冲环境(张吉衡,2009)等。鉴于此,本文对大兴安岭北段图里河地区满克头鄂博组火山岩进行年代学和地球化学研究,在确定其年代的基础上,对其岩石成因、构造背景等方面予以制约。

2 地质概况及样品描述

研究区位于大兴安岭北段牙克石市图里河镇,向北距离根河市约30 km,大地构造位置属于额尔古纳地块(图 1)。区内地层主要为早石炭世莫尔根河组(C1m)、中侏罗世塔木兰沟组(J2tm)中基性火山岩、晚侏罗世满克头鄂博组(J3mk)酸性火山岩及沉积岩、玛尼吐组(J3mn)中性火山岩、早白垩世白音高老组(K1b)酸性火山岩和梅勒图组(K1m)基性火山岩夹沉积岩,侵入岩主要为早白垩世二长花岗岩。

图 1 研究区地质略图(a)及大地构造位置图(b) Figure 1 Geological sketch map (a) and tectonic location of the research area (b)

满克头鄂博组火山岩在区内广泛分布,岩性以流纹岩为主,也分布有流纹质晶屑凝灰熔岩、流纹质含角砾岩屑晶屑凝灰岩等酸性火山熔岩、火山碎屑岩。用于年龄测试的样品D2016采自满克头鄂博组火山岩,岩性为浅黄色流纹岩,采样点坐标:121°22′30″E,50°30′25″N(图 1)。浅黄色流纹岩在区内产状平缓,风化面灰褐色,新鲜面为浅黄色,斑状结构,流纹构造(图 2)。斑晶成分主要为石英,呈次圆状,粒度主要在1~1.5 mm,含量约为5%,有沿流动方向被“拉长”的现象。基质中针状长英质矿物呈放射状,形成球粒结构。

图 2 满克头鄂博组流纹岩手标本及镜下照片(正交偏光) Figure 2 Hand specimen and photomicrograph (crossed nicols) of Manketou'ebo rhyolites
3 分析方法 3.1 岩石地球化学

样品的主量元素和微量元素的测试分析在沈阳地质矿产研究所实验测试中心完成。常量元素用XRF玻璃熔片法,分析精度优于2%~5%;稀土元素和微量元素采用ICP-MS分析方法,分析精度和准确度一般优于5%~10%。

3.2 锆石LA-ICP-MS年代学

锆石分选、制靶、CL图像采集工作在河北省廊坊诚信地质服务有限公司完成,锆石U-Pb年代学和微量元素含量分析测试工作在中国科学院青藏高原研究所大陆碰撞与高原隆升重点实验室完成。测试仪器为激光剥蚀电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(LA-ICPMS)。LA-ICP-MS激光剥蚀系统为美国NewWave公司生产的UP193FX型193 nm ArF准分子系统,激光器来自于德国ATL公司,ICP-MS为Agilent 7500 a。激光器波长为193 nm,脉冲宽度<4 ns,束斑直径为10~125 μm可调,本次测试所用束斑直径为35 μm,脉冲频率为7 Hz。锆石标样采用Plesovice(年龄为(337±0.37)Ma)(Slama et al., 2008);成分标样采用NIST SRM 612,其中29Si作为内标元素。样品的同位素比值及元素含量计算采用GLITTER程序,普通铅校正采用Anderson(2002)提出的校正程序,U-Pb谐和图、年龄分布频率图绘制和年龄权重平均计算采用Isoplot(Ludwig, 2003)程序完成。

4 分析结果 4.1 地球化学特征 4.1.1 主量元素

满克头鄂博组火山岩主量和微量元素分析结果见表 1。其中,SiO2含量为69.09% ~75.92%,全碱含量(K2O+Na2O)含量为8.04%~9.23%,Al2O3含量为12.48%~16.07%,FeOT、MgO、CaO含量较低,其中FeOT含量为1.17%~3.03%,MgO含量为0.09% ~0.76%,CaO含量为0.32%~0.59%。火山岩样品的A/CNK比值为1.04~1.29,为准铝质-弱过铝质岩石,过碱指数PI介于0.73~0.91。在火山岩TAS分类图(图 3)中,6个样品均落入流纹岩范围,且所有样品均属于高钾钙碱性系列(图 4)。

表 1 满克头鄂博组火山岩主量(%)与微量元素(10-6)分析结果 Table 1 Major and trace element compositions of Manketou'ebo volcanic rocks
图 3 岩石TAS分类图(据Le Maitre et al, 1989 Figure 3 TAS classification chart of rocks (after Le Maitre et al., 1989)
图 4 岩石SiO2-K2O图解(据Peccerillo and Taylor, 1976) Figure 4 SiO2-K2O diagram of rocks (after Peccerillo and Taylor, 1976)
4.1.2 微量元素

满克头鄂博组火山岩稀土元素含量中等,∑REE为110.46×10-6~213.8510-6,平均值为147.610-6。在稀土元素配分模式上,表现为LREE富集右倾型(图 5),轻重稀土元素分馏明显,(La/Yb)N=5.85~ 13.53,无铕异常或具有较弱的铕负异常,δEu=0.42~ 1.14,平均值为0.89。微量元素原始地幔蛛网图(图 5)上,火山岩样品富集Rb、Th、U、K等大离子亲石元素,亏损Nb、Ta、Ti等高场强元素,大离子亲石元素中Ba和Sr具有不同程度的亏损。

图 5 岩石稀土元素球粒陨石标准化配分图解(a,标准值据Boynton,1984)和微量元素原始地幔标准化蛛网图(b,标准值据Sun et al., 1989 Figure 5 Chondrite-normalized REE patterns (a, normalization values after Boynton, 1984) and primitive mantle-normalized trace element spider diagrams (b, normalization values after Sun et al., 1989)
4.2 锆石LA-ICP-MS年代学

满克头鄂博组火山岩样品U-Th-Pb同位素分析结果见表 2。从锆石CL图像(图 6)可以看出,锆石颗粒晶型完好,多呈长柱、短柱状,部分呈断头晶,具有明显的震荡生长环带结构,锆石Th/U比值为0.56~ 1.23,说明为典型岩浆成因锆石。23个锆石分析点的数据比较集中,均落在谐和线上或其附近(图 7),其206Pb/208U加权平均年龄为(157 ± 1)Ma(MSWD= 1.4)。该年龄可以代表火山岩的形成时代。

表 2 满克头鄂博组流纹岩锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb同位素分析结果 Table 2 Zircon isotopic LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses for Manketou'ebo rhyolites
图 6 流纹岩锆石阴极发光图像 Figure 6 CL images of zircons for rhyolites
图 7 流纹岩锆石U−Pb年龄谐和图 Figure 7 U−Pb concordia diagrams for rhyolites
5 讨论 5.1 满克头鄂博组时代

近年来学者们对大兴安岭地区满克头鄂博组火山岩的研究取得了很多成果,获得了大量的同位素数据(刘俊杰等,2006孟恩等,2011苟军,2013吴涛涛等,2014)。笔者通过归纳整理大兴安岭地区满克头鄂博组高精度测年结果(表 3),发现满克头鄂博组火山岩年龄介于162~122 Ma,时代跨度较大,但是仍然可以看出主要集中于150~160 Ma;结合本文的测年结果,确定满克头鄂博组火山岩形成于晚侏罗世。

表 3 大兴安岭地区满克头鄂博组火山岩测年结果 Table 3 Ages of Manketou'ebo volcanic rocks of Da Hinggan Mountains
5.2 淡色流纹岩源区

目前主要有玄武岩浆或安山岩浆的分离结晶作用(葛文春等,2000林强等19982003)及地壳岩石的部分熔融两种成因观点(郭峰等,2001高晓峰等,2005)。

在地球化学研究中,满克头鄂博组火山岩以高硅,富碱,富铝,贫铁、镁、钙为特征。岩石为高钾钙碱性,SiO2含量为69.09% ~75.92%,Mg#值介于12.14~31.01,具有壳源属性(Atherton et al., 1993)。δEu=0.42~1.14,表明源区可能有斜长石残留或发生了分离结晶。岩体富集轻稀土元素、贫重稀土元素,以及Nb、Ta等高场强元素的亏损表明源区可能残留石榴子石。Cr、Ni、Co和V含量分别介于0.5× 10-6~9.4×10-6、0.9×10-6~4.8×10-6、1.3×10-6~5.3×10-6和15.1×10-6~36.1×10-6,显示岩石母岩浆没有幔源物质的加入(邓晋福等,1999)。另外该地区缺乏同时代的玄武岩,不能构成双峰式火山岩组合(苟军等,2010),而野外调查发现该组火山岩在区内大面积发育,短时间内如此大规模酸性岩浆的喷发,很难解释为基性岩浆的分异残余。此外,样品Nb/Ta值(6.67~ 27.17,平均值12.23)接近地壳平均值8.3(Rudnick et al., 2003),Rb/Sr值(0.35~3.63,平均值1.58)接近地壳值0.35(Rudnick et al., 2003),Th/Nb值(0.29~0.77,平均值0.46)接近地壳平均值0.44。综上所述,满克头鄂博组应为下地壳岩石部分熔融的产物。

5.3 构造背景及成因

前人对大兴安岭地区满克头鄂博组的研究表明,该套火山岩多数具A型花岗岩的特征,代表了区域处于伸展环境(张旗等,2012)。本文对岩石进行构造判别图解,在R1-R2图解(图 8)中,岩石样品总体落在造山期后范围;在(Y+Nb)-Rb构造环境判别图解(图 9)中,岩石介于同碰撞和板内环境范围之间,同样具有造山后花岗岩特征。

图 8 岩石R1-R2图解(据Batchelor et al,1985 Figure 8 R1-R2 diagram of rocks (after Batchelor et al., 1985)
图 9 岩石(Y+Nb)-Rb图解(据Pearce等,1984 Figure 9 (Y+Nb)-Rb diagram of rocks (after Pearce et al., 1984)

对于大兴安岭中生代火山岩形成的构造背景主要有3种观点:一是地幔柱模式(葛文春等,2000林强等,2003);二是与古太平洋板块俯冲有关(张吉衡,2009);三是与蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋闭合后的造山带伸展有关(许文良等,2013李宇等,2015纪政等2015)。

年代学研究表明大兴安岭中生代火山岩的形成时代具有较大的变化范围,且不存在所谓的环状火山岩带,很难用地幔柱作用模式予以解释(Fan et al., 2003Zhang et al., 2008);考虑研究区所处的构造位置,中生代太平洋板块的俯冲到达不了大兴安岭地区(邵济安等,2000赵大鹏等,2004),而且在远离太平洋板块的蒙古国中东部存在和中国大兴安岭地区相同的火山岩(Fan et al., 2003; 孙德有等,2011),因此研究区晚侏罗世火山岩的形成可能与太平洋板块俯冲的关系不大。

研究表明,蒙古鄂霍次克海形成于古生代早期,于中侏罗世关闭,同时已有资料显示该地区早白垩世应处于造山后伸展环境(李锦轶等,2004Zorin et al., 1995, 1999)。大兴安岭区域火山岩由西向东总体上具有时代逐渐变新的趋势(Wang et al., 2006),与蒙古鄂霍茨克洋闭合的特征相符,因此认为大兴安岭地区满克头鄂博组火山岩可能形成于蒙古鄂霍茨克洋闭合的造山后伸展环境。

中侏罗世大洋闭合,发生碰撞造山之后使得陆壳增厚,基性下地壳在一定条件下(>1.0 GPa)会形成榴辉岩,榴辉岩比地幔物质密度大,由于重力不均衡,加厚的陆壳于约155 Ma(晚侏罗世)发生拆沉作用(Kay and Kay, 1993Xu et al., 2006),导致区域在该阶段处于伸展环境。加厚的地壳因重力不稳定而拆沉到软流圈中,并发生不同程度的部分熔融,上涌的软流圈同时发生减压部分熔融,上升的幔源岩浆诱发未发生拆沉的下地壳物质发生部分熔融,从而形成满克头鄂博组。

6 结论

(1)图里河地区满克头鄂博组火山岩由酸性火山熔岩和火山碎屑岩夹沉积岩组成,流纹岩锆石U-Pb年龄为(157±1)Ma,形成时代为晚侏罗世。

(2)火山岩为高钾钙碱性、偏铝质-弱过铝质岩石,为下地壳部分熔融的产物。

(3)满克头鄂博组火山岩形成于造山后伸展环境,可能与蒙古鄂霍茨克洋闭合后的岩石圈伸展作用密切相关。

致谢: 本文野外工作得到沈阳地质调查中心邵军研究员和吉林大学李云峰老师的指导和帮助,审稿专家和编辑部老师为本文的最终定稿付出了辛勤的汗水,对他们的帮助一并表示感谢。

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