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  中国地质 2019, Vol. 46 Issue (4): 818-831  
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龚雪婧, 曾建辉, 曹殿华. 2019. 江西冷水坑矿床含矿花岗斑岩的Sr-Nd及锆石Hf-O同位素研究[J]. 中国地质, 46(4): 818-831.  
Gong Xuejing, Zeng Jianhui, Cao Dianhua. 2019. Sr-Nd and zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the orebearing granitic porphyry at Lengshuikeng, Jiangxi Province[J]. Geology in China, 46(4): 818-831. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

江西冷水坑矿床含矿花岗斑岩的Sr-Nd及锆石Hf-O同位素研究
龚雪婧1,2, 曾建辉3, 曹殿华1,2    
1. 中国地质科学院, 北京 100037;
2. 中国地质调查局-中国地质科学院地球深部探测中心, 北京 100037;
3. 江西省地质矿产勘查开发局九一二大队, 江西 鹰潭 335000
摘要: 江西冷水坑铅锌矿床是武夷成矿带北段的典型矿床,矿区内含矿花岗斑岩锆石U-Pb年龄为(162.0±2.0)Ma,岩浆分异程度较高,具有高SiO2(69.46%~75.52%)、高K2O(K2O/Na2O>3.22)、强过铝质(ASI=1.20~1.96)的特征。岩体发育较明显的Eu负异常,富集强不相容元素Rb、Th、U,而亏损高场强元素Ba、Sr、Nb、Ta、P、Ti。全岩同位素测试结果显示,冷水坑含矿花岗斑岩具有极高的87Sr/86Sr初始比值(0.74005~0.76518)与低的εNd值(-11.48~-10.78),锆石Hf-O同位素测定值变化范围较小,176Hf/177Hf介于0.282317~0.282460,具有负的εHft)值(-12.39~-7.62)和相对较高的δ18O值(7.23‰~8.81‰),指示岩浆主要来自于成熟地壳,可能起源于北武夷地区变质基底,源岩为基底变质岩,这可能与古太平洋板块俯冲形成的挤压背景下的地壳熔融有关。
关键词: Sr-Nd-Hf-O同位素    花岗斑岩    冷水坑    武夷成矿带    华南    
中图分类号:P588.13;P597            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2019)04-0818-14
Sr-Nd and zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the orebearing granitic porphyry at Lengshuikeng, Jiangxi Province
GONG Xuejing1,2, ZENG Jianhui3, CAO Dianhua1,2    
1. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China;
2. SinoProbe Center, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and China Geological Survey, Beijing 100037, China;
3. No. 912 Geological Party of Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development, Yingtan 335001, Jiangxi, China
Abstract: The Lengshuikeng lead-zinc deposit in Jiangxi Province is a typical deposit in the northern section of the Wuyi metallogenic belt. The zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of the ore-bearing granite porphyry in the mining area is (162.0±2.0) Ma. The granite porphyries are highly evolved, with high SiO2 (69.46%~75.52%), high K2O (K2O/Na2O>3.22) and strong peraluminous (ASI=1.20~1.96). The negative Eu anomalies of the rock mass are relatively strong, and enriched in LILE such as Rb, Th, and U, while the HFSE such as Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, P, and Ti are depleted. In this study, the authors also report Sr-Nd and zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions of the granitic porphyries at Lengshuikeng. The results show that the granitic porphyries have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.74005~0.76518) and negative εNd values (-11.48~-10.78) as well as the zircon Hf-O isotope measurement value. The variation range of 176Hf/177Hf values (0.282317~0.282460) is small, with negative εHf(t) values (-12.39~-7.62) and relatively high δ18O values (7.23‰~8.81‰), indicating that the magma mainly came from the mature crust, which may have originated from metamorphic basement of North Wuyi area, and the source rocks were probably the metamorphic basement. The magmatic activity was probably related to the crust melting under the compressive background formed by northwestward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.
Key words: Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopes    granitic porphyry    Lengshuikeng    Wuyi metallogenic belt    Southeast China    

1 引言

位于江西省贵溪市的冷水坑铅锌矿床,因具有典型的斑岩型矿床特征,被认为是一个超大型斑岩铅锌矿床(涂光炽, 1989; 孟祥金等, 2009)。前人对冷水坑矿床开展了大量的研究工作,包括矿床地质(孟祥金等, 2007; 何细荣等, 2010; 邱骏挺等, 2013; Wang et al., 2014)、含矿斑岩年代学及地球化学(孟祥金等, 2007, 2012; 左力艳等, 2010; 王长明等, 2011; 邱骏挺等, 2013; 苏慧敏等, 2013; 余明刚等, 2015)、矿床成因(孟祥金等, 2009; 周建祥, 2009; 何细荣等, 2010; 毛景文等, 2011; 王长明等, 2011; Wang et al., 2013)等。研究结果显示,空间上,铅锌矿化主要产出在花岗斑岩体内及其接触带附近,矿体产状与岩体一致;时间上,近年来高精度年代学研究获得冷水坑矿床含矿花岗斑岩的形成时代集中于155~163 Ma(左力艳等, 2010; 孟祥金等, 2012; 邱骏挺等, 2013; Wang et al., 2013),孟祥金等(2009)通过矿区蚀变岩绢云母Ar-Ar年龄测试获得的冷水坑矿床的形成时代为162.8 Ma,与花岗斑岩成岩年龄相一致。冷水坑矿床铅锌矿化与花岗斑岩体密切的时空关系,暗示两者可能具有密切的成因关联。因此,探究矿区内花岗斑岩的岩浆源区特征,试图确定其成因机制,对于进一步正确理解花岗斑岩岩浆起源演化与Pb-Zn成矿可能存在的关系具有重要意义。

锆石是岩浆岩,尤其是中酸性岩中普遍存在的副矿物,其化学性质稳定、抗风化蚀变能力强,对铪、氧同位素组成具有很好的保存性,因此锆石HfO同位素常用于约束岩浆源区特征、反演岩浆演化历史,是追踪岩浆物质来源及壳幔相互作用的重要工具(Mojzsis et al., 2001; Peck et al., 2001; Valley et al., 2005; Booth et al., 2005; Li et al., 2009, 2010; Cavosie et al., 2011; Grimes et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015)。为此,本文在对冷水坑矿区含矿花岗斑岩开展了详细的年代学、岩石地球化学及Sr-Nd同位素地球化学研究的基础上,报道了冷水坑含矿花岗斑岩的锆石Hf-O同位素特征,试图对其物质来源及成因机制提供新的制约。

2 矿区地质特征及样品采集

冷水坑铅锌矿床位于江西省鹰潭市,产出于华夏板块北西缘,钦杭结合带南侧,受北北东向鹰潭—安远深断裂及北东向萍乡—绍兴深断裂控制(图 1a);成矿带尺度上属于中国东部环太平洋成矿带内带,武夷银多金属成矿带北段。矿区基底地层为震旦系老虎塘组变质岩,盖层为矿区内广泛分布的侏罗系—白垩系打鼓顶组和鹅湖岭组火山岩,打鼓顶组岩性为晶屑凝灰岩夹铁锰含矿层、安山岩、角砾安山岩及凝灰质粉砂岩、沉凝灰岩;鹅湖岭组岩性为晶屑凝灰岩、熔结凝灰岩并夹铁锰含矿层、凝灰质粉砂岩及流纹岩。矿区东北部零星出露石炭纪地层,岩性主要为石英细砂岩、砂岩、砂砾岩及紫红色粉砂岩。

图 1 冷水坑矿床区域构造简图(a)、冷水坑矿区地质简图(b)及100勘探线剖面图(c)(b, c据江西省地质矿产勘查开发局912地质队,1997) Fig. 1 Tectonic framework of the Lengshuikeng area (a), geological map of the Lengshuikeng deposit(b) and No.100 cross section(c)(b and c are modified after No.912 Geological Team of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration Development Bureau of Jiangxi Province, 1997)

矿区构造以断裂构造为主,主要表现为断层发育,其次变质基底及火山岩地层构成简单的褶皱构造。分布于矿区中部的F2断裂(图 1c),为一推覆构造,是区域推覆构造在矿区的出露部分,震旦系上统变质岩被该断裂推覆至侏罗系上统火山岩之上。总体走向北东45°,倾向北西,倾角15~35°,断裂破碎带宽数米至40 m左右,带内糜棱岩、断层角砾岩、碎裂岩及构造透镜体发育。断裂破碎带中见有硅化、绿泥石化、碳酸盐化、绢云母化、黄铁矿化及银铅锌矿化等。F2断裂构造旁侧的次级派生断裂、裂隙较发育,展布方向有北东向、北北东向、近东西向、近南北向及北西向5组。派生断裂构造的延伸规模、位移均相对较小,但其与成矿关系比较密切,为重要的容矿储矿构造。花岗斑岩体与铅锌矿体的产状均明显受到近南北与近东西向两组断裂的控制,从而显示F2断裂控制了岩体就位与储矿空间(图 1c),由于F2断裂上盘震旦系上统变质岩的良好封闭条件,含矿流体在屏蔽环境中得以进行充分交代、充填而成矿。

矿区内岩浆岩主要形成于加里东中晚期、燕山中期和燕山晚期。其中燕山中期岩浆活动强烈,主要形成浅成—超浅成的侵入岩体,岩性主要有花岗斑岩及石英正长斑岩;燕山晚期则主要形成流纹斑岩和钾长花岗斑岩,其岩体规模较小,主要呈岩脉、岩墙、岩瘤或岩盆产出,切割了较早形成的岩脉。与矿化关系密切的岩浆岩为花岗斑岩(图 1b),分布于矿区的中部,自北西向南东呈不规则岩株状产出,出露总面积约为0.36 km2

样品采集于冷水坑矿区银珠山矿田钻孔ZK11111中(图 1b)。岩石样品较新鲜,呈浅灰色至浅灰绿色,块状构造,斑状结构,斑晶主要为石英和斜长石(15%~35%),粒径大小不一为0.5~5 mm,基质(65%~85%)多为显微花岗结构(图 2)。主要矿物组成有斜长石(35%~45%)、石英(25%~30%)、钾长石(15%~20%),黑云母较少(1%~2%),副矿物见磷灰石、锆石等。

图 2 冷水坑花岗斑岩样品矿物组合特征 Pl—斜长石; Qtz—石英; Bt—黑云母 Fig. 2 Microscopic characteristics of the granite porphyry samples in the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn mining area Pl-Plagioclase; Qtz-Quartz; Bt-Biotite
3 测试方法与结果 3.1 测试方法

样品由河北省诚信地质服务公司进行预处理,用于全岩主微量元素及Sr-Nd同位素测试的样品采用无污染法粉碎至200目, 用于锆石U-Pb定年及Hf-O同位素分析的样品,将其破碎至100目以下,经淘洗后用电磁选和重液浮选方法选出重矿物,再在双目镜下挑选无明显裂痕且晶形和透明度较好的单颗粒锆石。挑选出的锆石样品在北京离子探针中心进行制靶及透射光、反射光和阴极发光(CL)显微照相。根据透射光、反射光和CL图像分析锆石颗粒内部显微结构特征,选择锆石内部无包裹体、无裂纹、阴极发光图像结构均匀或生长环带规则部位,进行原位U-Pb年龄及Hf-O同位素测定。

3.1.1 SHRIMP锆石U-Pb定年

锆石SHRIMP U-Pb分析在北京离子探针中心SHRIMP Ⅱ上完成。测试时一次流O-2强度为3~5 nA,束斑直径25~30 μm。标样M257(U=840×10-6, Nasdala et al., 2008)和TEM(年龄417 Ma,Black et al., 2003)分别用于锆石U含量和年龄校正。每分析3个样品点,分析一次标准锆石TEM进行同位素分馏校正,详细分析方法及原理见Williams(1998)。数据处理采用SQUID和ISOPLOT程序(Ludwig, 2001)。根据实测204Pb含量校正普通铅,采用206Pb/238Pb年龄为锆石年龄,同位素比值和单点年龄误差均为1σ。

3.1.2 主微量元素测试

主、微量元素分析在中国地质科学院国家地质实验测试中心完成,其中,主量元素含量采用X射线荧光光谱仪(XRF)测定,分析相对误差低于5%;稀土元素和微量元素采用等离子质谱(Excell)ICPMS测定,分析相对误差低于10%。

3.1.3 Sr-Nd同位素测试

Sr-Nd同位素测试在南京大学内生金属矿床成矿机制研究国家重点实验室完成。将粉末样品烘干后称取约100 mg,完全溶解于HF+HNO3混合酸中,采用Bio-Rad50WX8阳离子交换树脂法将Sr和Nd分离提纯出来。分离产物采用Thermo Finnigan公司的Triton TI热电离质谱仪(TIMS)进行Sr和Nd同位素比值测定,详细实验流程参见濮巍等(2004, 2005)。Sr和Nd测定过程中质量分馏效应分别采用86Sr/87Sr=0.1194和146Nd/144Nd=0.7219进行校正。实验过程中国际标样NIST SRM987的86Sr/87Sr测定值为0.710259±4(2σ),与参考值0.710252±13(2σ)(Weis et al., 2006)在误差范围内一致;国际标样JNdi的146Nd/144Nd测定值为0.512116±4(2σ),与参考值0.512115±7(2σ)(Tanaka et al., 2000)在误差范围内一致。

3.1.4 SHRIMP锆石O同位素测试

锆石O同位素分析在北京离子探针中心多接收二次离子质谱(SHRIMP Ⅱe-MC)上完成。在对锆石进行氧同位素测试之前,对已经进行过年龄测试的靶进行抛光,除去定年时形成的凹坑,使其平滑并消除可能存在的O污染,清洗烘干后在样品靶表面镀一层厚度约12 nm的Au膜。锆石氧同位素原位测试分析点与U-Pb年龄测试分析点位置相同,以保证测得的O同位素值与年龄值相对应。测试采用的Cs+离子束约3.0 nA,通过10 kV加速电压轰击锆石样品表面,剥蚀斑束直径约20 μm,产生的二次16O-离子计数为109 cps,经过30 eV能量过滤窗后,进入多接收器。每分析3个样品点分析1次标样锆石TEM(δ18O=8.2‰)以确保仪器状态稳定,同时对被测样品进行校正。δ18O的分析结果以VSMOW为标准进行报道(‰),详细分析流程及原理见Ickert et al.(2008)

3.1.5 LA-MC-ICP-MS锆石Hf同位素测试

锆石Hf同位素测试在中国地质科学院地质研究所LA-MC-ICP-MS实验室完成。实验仪器为Neptune Plus多接收等离子质谱仪和193 nm GeoLasPro激光发射器。实验过程中采用He作为剥蚀物质载气,剥蚀激光直径44 μm,测试位置采用U-Pb定年分析点原点测试。实验选用的锆石标样GJ- 1作为参考物质,测试中锆石标准GJ- 1的176Hf/177Hf加权平均值为0.282008±20。相关仪器运行条件及分析流程详见侯可军等(2007),Hf同位素计算公式参考吴福元等(2007)

3.2 测试结果 3.2.1 锆石U-Pb年龄

本次工作采集冷水坑矿区银珠山矿段钻孔ZK11111中花岗斑岩样品,花岗斑岩样品中锆石为无色透明或浅黄色柱状,震荡环带特征明显(图 3),测试样品中锆石Th/U比值均大于0.3(表 1),与变质重结晶锆石Th/U比值(< 0.1)差别较大,为岩浆成因(Hoskin and Black, 2000Belousova et al., 2002),其年龄可以代表岩浆冷却结晶及岩体侵位的时代。测试获得花岗斑岩锆石加权平均年龄为(162.0± 2.0)Ma(MSWD =1.4)(图 3),Th、U含量均较高,分别为90×10-6~1337×10-6和137×10-6~3395×10-6,Th/ U值介于0.36~0.88。

图 3 冷水坑花岗斑岩锆石阴极发光图像、测试位置(小圆圈代表SHRIMP U-Pb和O同位素分析点,大圆圈代表LA-MCICP-MS Hf同位素分析点)和结果(分析点旁边的数字表示U-Pb年龄和εHf(t)/δ18O值)及SHRIMP锆石U-Pb协和图 Fig. 3 Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from granite porphyry in the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn deposit with their data and the SHRIMP U-Pb concordia diagram
表 1 冷水坑矿床花岗斑岩锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年龄分析结果 Table 1 Results of zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating of granite porphyry in the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn deposit
3.2.2 全岩主、微量及稀土元素组成

冷水坑花岗斑岩主量元素分析结果见表 2,各主量元素含量从大到小为:SiO2含量较高,为69.46% ~75.52%,平均值73.27%;Al2O3含量为12.04% ~14.07%,平均值13.07%;K2O为4.99% ~ 6.29%,平均值5.59%;FeO为0.84%~1.53%,平均值1.18%;Fe2O3为0.10%~2.30%,平均值0.83%;Na2O为0.01% ~1.64%,平均值0.65%;MgO为0.25% ~ 0.90%,平均值0.55%;CaO为0.07%~1.68%,平均值0.54%;TiO2为0.08%~0.30%,平均值0.20%;P2O5为0.02%~0.08%,平均值0.05%;全碱含量即(K2O+ Na2O)为5.04%~7.27%,平均值6.24%;岩体显示出K2O相对于Na2O的强烈富集,K2O/Na2O比值介于3.22~503.00,平均值103.34(表 2)。在岩浆/火山岩系统全碱-硅(TAS)分类图(图 4a)中,花岗斑岩所有投点均位于花岗岩系中,结合岩石手标本及镜下观察将其定名为花岗斑岩。在SiO2-K2O图解(图 4b)中,花岗斑岩投点落入高钾钙碱性-钾玄岩系列区域;里特曼指数(σ =(Na2O + K2O)2/(SiO2- 43))为0.85~1.81(表 2),说明岩体均属于钙碱性系列。花岗斑岩铝饱和指数为1.20~1.96,显示出过铝质的特征,在ASI-SiO2图解(图 4c)中,数据点均落在强过铝质区域内。

表 2 冷水坑铅锌矿床花岗斑岩主量(%)、稀土及微量元素(10-6)分析结果 Table 2 Major, rare earth and trace element compositions of granite porphyry in the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn deposit
图 4 岩石类型和系列划分图解 a—SiO2-(Na2O+K2O)图解(分类据Wilson,1989):1—橄榄辉长岩;2a—碱性辉长岩;2b—亚碱性辉长岩;3—辉长闪长岩;4—闪长岩;5—花岗闪长岩;6—花岗岩;7—硅英岩;8—二长辉长岩;9—二长闪长岩;10—二长岩;11—石英二长岩;12—正长岩;13—副长石辉长岩;14—副长石二长闪长岩;15—副长石二长正长岩;16—副长石正长岩;17—副长石深成岩;18—霓方钠岩/磷霞岩/粗白榴岩);b—SiO2- K2O图解(据Le Maitre,2002);c—ASI- SiO2图解 Fig. 4 Classification and series of diagrams of the granite porphyries a-SiO2-(Na2O+K2O) diagram (after Wilson, 1989):1-Olivine gabbro; 2a-Alkaline gabbro; 2b- Subalkaline gabbro; 3-Gabbro diorite; 4- Diorite; 5- Granodiorite; 6- Granite; 7-Quartzolite; 8-Monzogabbro; 9- Monzodiorite; 10- Monzonite; 11- Adamellite; 12- Syenite; 13-Parafeldspar gabbro; 14- Parafeldspar monzodiorite; 15- Foid monzosyenite; 16- parafeldspar syenite; 17- parafeldspar plutonic rocks; 18- Tawite/ urtite/ italite); b-SiO2-K2O diagram(after Le Maitre, 2002); c- ASI- SiO2 diagram

花岗斑岩稀土元素总量(∑REE)为114.79× 10-6~206.23×10-6,其中轻稀土元素总量(∑LREE)为101.24 × 10-6~194.33 × 10-6,重稀土元素总量(∑HREE)为11.90×10-6~14.13×10-6,LREE/HREE比值为7.47~16.33(表 2)。稀土元素球粒陨石标准化(Sun et al., 1989)配分曲线呈右倾平滑的平行曲线簇(图 5a),富集轻稀土元素,(La/Yb)N=9.26~ 23.94;负Eu异常较强,δEu为0.42~0.67。总体上具有富集强不相容元素Rb、Th、U,而亏损高场强元素Ba、Sr、Nb、Ta、P、Ti的特点(图 5b)。

图 5 稀土元素球粒陨石标准化配分曲线图(a)和微量元素原始地幔标准化配分曲线图(b)(球粒陨石、原始地幔数据据Sun et al., 1989 Fig. 5 Chondrite-normalized REE patterns (a) and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns (b) (data of chondrite and primitive mantle after Sun et al., 1989)
3.2.3 全岩Sr-Nd同位素地球化学特征

冷水坑花岗斑岩具有较高含量的Rb,为235× 106~280 × 106,Sr含量为33.2 × 106~71.4 × 106,(87Sr/86Sr)i较高,为0.74005~0.76518(表 3)。Sr初始值比地壳部分熔融形成花岗岩的Sr初始值(0.719)更大(韩吟文等,2003),这种Sr同位素特征可能反映出花岗斑岩来源于地壳物质的熔融。εNd值较低,为-11.48~-10.78,二阶段模式年龄介于1910~1828 Ma(表 3)。

表 3 冷水坑铅锌矿床花岗斑岩Sr-Nd同位素分析结果 Table 3 Sr-Nd isotope compositions of granite porphyry in the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn deposit
3.2.4 锆石Hf-O同位素地球化学特征

锆石Hf-O同位素测试结果见表 4。结果显示冷水坑矿床花岗斑岩锆石的Hf-O同位素测定值相对较为集中,且变化范围较小,176Hf/177Hf介于0.282317~0.282460(表 4),εHf(t)= -12.39~-7.62(t= 161 Ma)(表 4),平均值为-9.83,相对应的二阶段模式年龄集中于1697~1993 Ma(表 4);δ18O=7.23‰~ 8.81%(表 4),平均值为7.83‰,其累积频数直方图呈明显单峰分布特征(图 6)。

表 4 冷水坑铅锌矿床花岗斑岩锆石原位Hf-O同位素组成 Table 4 Zircon in situ Hf-O isotopic composition of granite porphyry in the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn deposit
图 6 冷水坑花岗斑岩锆石Hf同位素(a)和O同位素(b)组成频数统计图 Fig. 6 The cumulative probability histogram of in situ zircon εHf(t) (a) and δ18O (b) for the Lengshuikeng granite porphyries
4 讨论 4.1 岩浆源区特征

冷水坑花岗斑岩总体上具有富集强不相容元素Rb、Th、U,而亏损高场强元素Ba、Sr、Nb、Ta、P、Ti的特点,近年来的研究显示,岩石Sr、Ba亏损可能与岩浆演化过程中斜长石的分离结晶作用有关,Ti、P的相对亏损可能与岩浆分异过程有关,归因于铁钛氧化物、磷灰石的分离结晶。由于Rb通常在成熟度高的地壳中富集,而Sr通常富集于成熟度低、演化不充分的的地壳中,因此Rb/Sr比值能灵敏地反映其源区特征(王德滋等,1993)。冷水坑花岗斑岩的Rb/Sr值介于2.76~7.80,平均值为4.95,远高于中国东部上地壳平均值(0.31,高山等,1999)和全球上地壳平均值(0.32,Taylor and MeLennan, 1985)。此外,花岗斑岩Nb/Ta比值介于10.00~11.78,平均值为10.88,远低于中国东部上地壳平均值(16.2,高山等,1999)和全球上地壳平均值(12.0,Taylor and MeLennan, 1985),这种较高的Rb/Sr比值和较低的Nb/Ta比值都指示其源区为成熟度较高的壳源物质,但还需同位素特征的进一步约束。

冷水坑花岗斑岩具有极高的Sr同位素特征值(0.74005~0.76518)和低的Nd同位素特征值(- 11.48~- 10.78),计算的二阶段模式年龄介于1910~1828 Ma,指示其源区为较老的壳源物质。在Sr-Nd同位素相关图中(图 7),样品点全部位于华夏陆块古元古代变质基底区域内,表明物质主要来自于成熟地壳,可能起源于北武夷地区变质基底,源岩为基底变质岩。冷水坑花岗斑岩锆石δ18O值介于7.23‰~8.81‰,均值为7.87‰,除3颗锆石外(分别为7.23‰、7.25‰和7.29‰),其余锆石δ18O值均高于太古宙岩浆锆石δ18O值(6.5‰~7.5‰, Valley et al., 2005),暗示其岩浆来自于表壳物质。锆石较老的二阶段Hf模式年龄(1697~2024 Ma),也指示了成熟地壳物质的贡献。根据花岗斑岩全岩的SiO2含量(73.27%)估算出全岩δ18O值大致介于14.21‰~ 15.79‰(δ18Ozrn-WR = δ18OZrc- δ18OWR ≈ - 0.0612(wt.%SiO2)+2.5, Valley et al., 2005), 高于全球典型S型花岗岩(δ18O=9.9‰~10.5‰, O’Neil, 1977)的全岩氧同位素组成。在εHf(t)-δ18O二端元图解中(图 8),冷水坑花岗斑岩锆石Hf-O同位素组成非常靠近但并未完全落入地壳(S型花岗岩)端元区,这样的同位素特征可能与侏罗纪岩浆活动来源于变质基底的熔融有关,加入的地幔物质可能是古老地壳中先存的火成岩(Chappell and Stephens, 1988; Sylvester, 1998; Clemens, 2003)。

图 7 冷水坑花岗斑岩εNd(t)-(87Sr/86Sr)i(底图据Wang et al., 2013)图解 Fig. 7 87Sr/86Sr versus εNd(t) diagram (after Wang et al., 2013) showing the isotope signatures for the Lengshuikeng granite porphyry
图 8 冷水坑花岗斑岩锆石原位εHf(t)-δ18O关系图解 (不同端元Hf同位素数据据Chauvel et al., 2008; O同位素数据据Hoefs et al., 2009.MORB: δ18O=5.8‰, εHf=13.9;沉积岩: δ18O=20‰, εHf=2; S型花岗岩: δ18O=10‰, εHf=- 12).混合线根据不同HfMORB/ Hfsediments(1:10~10:1)和HfMORB/Hfgranites(1:2~20:1)值做出,线上空心圆圈及正方形表示混合比例(10%间隔) Fig. 8 In-situ zircon δ18O vs εHf(t) isotope plot of the Lengshuikeng granite porphyry (hafnium isotope sources after Chauvel et al., 2008 and oxygen isotopes after Hoefs et al., 2009. The compositions of the members for mixing calculations are: MORB: δ18O=5.8‰, εHf=13.9; sediments: δ18O=20‰, εHf=2; S-type granites: δ18O=10‰, εHf=-12). The mixing curves were constructed using different HfMORB/Hfsediments and HfMORB/Hfgranites elemental ratios from 1:10 to 10:1 and 1:2 to 20:1 respectively; the circles and squares on mixing curves are at 10% intervals
4.2 地球动力学背景

由微量元素原始地幔标准化蛛网图(图 5b)可以看出,冷水坑花岗斑岩总体上具有富集强不相容元素Rb、Th、U,而亏损高场强元素Ba、Sr、Nb、Ta、P、Ti的特点,其配分模式具有明显的Nb-Ta槽和Ti谷,表现出与俯冲相关的弧花岗岩的特征(Rogers et al., 1989; Stern, 2002)。在花岗岩类构造环境判别图(图 9a, b)中,花岗斑岩样品均投点于同碰撞花岗岩或同碰撞花岗岩与弧花岗岩过渡范围内,指示其形成与板片俯冲、碰撞作用相关。在Zr/TiO2-Ce/ P2O5图解(图 9c)中,样品点均落入大陆弧范围内,由此推测花岗斑岩为产出在活动大陆边缘的陆缘弧岩浆岩。在Nb-Rb/Zr图解(图 9d)中,绝大多数投点位于正常弧范围,少数位于成熟弧或正常弧与成熟弧过渡范围内,暗示花岗斑岩为正常弧向成熟弧环境过渡的岩浆产物(Brown, 1984)。

图 9 冷水坑花岗斑岩构造环境判别图解 (a、b,底图据Pearce et al., 1984; c,底图据Müller et al., 1992; d,底图据Brown et al., 1988) Fig. 9 Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams of granite porphyry from the Lengshuikeng Pb-Zn deposit (a, b, after Pearce et al., 1984; c, after Müller et al., 1992; d, after Brown et al., 1988)

前人研究普遍认为华南地区白垩纪(晚燕山期)岩浆活动主要受到古太平洋板块俯冲的影响,发生于与之相关的活动大陆边缘环境,然而对于侏罗纪(燕山早期)岩浆活动的地球动力学过程尚存争议(Zhou et al., 2000; Li et al., 2007; Chen et al., 2008)。为进一步诠释侏罗纪华南板块内部的岩浆活动,许多构造模型被提出,如Charvet(2010)Jiang(2011)提出的低角度俯冲模型,Hou et al.(2009)提出的陆内造山及造山后伸展作用模型,Gilder(1991)提出的伸展环境盆岭省模型,板内裂谷模型(Chen, 1999Li 2000Xie et al., 2006)。尽管存在一些争议,但大多数学者认为这些模型中的任何一种,都与古太平洋的平板俯冲相关(Martin et al., 1995; Lapierre et al., 1997; Zhou et al., 2012)。从构造演化历史看,本区在中生代属于中国东南大陆边缘体系,经历了三叠纪—中晚侏罗世(220~150 Ma)的陆内俯冲—陆内拼贴碰撞造山、晚侏罗世((145±5)Ma)由挤压向伸展扩张的转换、早白垩世(125~105 Ma)的陆内扩张增强以及92 Ma开始的裂解阶段(孟祥金等,2007; Wang et al., 2013)。本次研究查明冷水坑含矿斑岩形成于162 Ma左右,处于陆内造山阶段的晚期,结合冷水坑含矿花岗斑岩的岩石地球化学特征,我们倾向性地认为冷水坑含矿花岗斑岩岩浆活动总体构造环境为古太平洋板块持续的俯冲与挤压,是古太平洋板块北西向俯冲引起的岩浆活动在北武夷地区的响应。

5 结论

(1)冷水坑花岗斑岩分异程度较高,具有高SiO2、高K2O、强过铝质的特征。岩体发育较明显的Eu负异常,富集强不相容元素Rb、Th、U,而亏损高场强元素Ba、Sr、Nb、Ta、P、Ti。其配分模式具有明显的Nb-Ta槽和Ti谷,表现出与俯冲相关的弧花岗岩的特征。

(2)冷水坑含矿花岗斑岩SHRIMP U-Pb年龄为(162.0±2.0)Ma,具有均一的锆石Hf-O同位素组成,εHf(t)= -12.39~-7.62,均值-9.83;δ18O=7.23‰~ 8.81‰,均值7.83‰,且具有极高的87Sr/86Sr初始比值(0.74005~0.76518)与低的εNd值(- 11.48~-10.78)。指示岩浆主要来自于成熟地壳,可能起源于北武夷地区变质基底,源岩为基底变质岩。其岩浆活动总体构造环境为古太平洋板块持续的俯冲与挤压,是古太平洋板块北西向俯冲引起的岩浆活动在北武夷地区的响应。

致谢: 野外工作中得到了江西省地质矿产勘查开发局九一二大队工作人员的大力支持。中国地质科学院地质研究所潘小菲副研究员、张智宇副研究员在野外工作中给予了帮助,中国地质科学院的赵苗博士、庄亮亮博士在测试和数据处理过程中给予了支持和帮助,在此一并表示衷心的感谢。

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