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  中国地质 2019, Vol. 46 Issue (6): 1259-1269  
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纵瑞文, 龚一鸣. 2019. 西准噶尔克拉赛勒克山和布克河组晚泥盆世化石的发现及其地层归属[J]. 中国地质, 46(6): 1259-1269.  
Zong Ruiwen, Gong Yiming. 2019. The discovery of the Late Devonian fossils from the Hebukehe Formation and its stratal position in Kelasaileke Mountain, western Junggar, Xinjiang[J]. Geology in China, 46(6): 1259-1269. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

西准噶尔克拉赛勒克山和布克河组晚泥盆世化石的发现及其地层归属
纵瑞文1,2, 龚一鸣1    
1. 中国地质大学 (武汉) 生物地质与环境地质国家重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430074;
2. 中国科学院资源地层学与古地理学重点实验室, 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 江苏 南京 210008
摘要:西准噶尔地区广泛分布的和布克河组已被证明是洪古勒楞组的晚出异名,本文在西准噶尔克拉赛勒克山原划为下石炭统“和布克河组”的碎屑岩地层中发现了丰富的动、植物化石,包括:三叶虫Phacops sp.,菊石Manticoceras sp.,腕足类Tylothyris sp.,Aulacella sp.,“Mucrospirifer” sp.,Cyrtospirifer sp.,植物Leptophloeum rhombicumSyringodendron sp.,Knorria sp.,其时代显示为晚泥盆世。根据岩性组合特征将其厘定为上泥盆统铁列克提组,而非“和布克河组”的替代名称洪古勒楞组。通过区域地质调查工作,证明了西准噶尔玛依力山地层小区内没有洪古勒楞组的分布,其晚泥盆世地层仅由铁列克提组组成,洪古勒楞组只分布在沙尔布尔提山地层小区,两个地层小区的界线为孟布拉克北侧至谢米斯台山南坡的深大断裂。晚泥盆世两个地层小区沉积分异明显,直到早石炭世早期才进入统一的盆地演化阶段,地层小区的分区性也随之消失。
关键词晚泥盆世    铁列克提组    和布克河组    斜方薄皮木    地层区划    西准噶尔    新疆    地质调查工程    
中图分类号:P535            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2019)06-1259-11
The discovery of the Late Devonian fossils from the Hebukehe Formation and its stratal position in Kelasaileke Mountain, western Junggar, Xinjiang
ZONG Ruiwen1,2, GONG Yiming1    
1. State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China;
2. Key Laboratory of Economic Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China
Abstract: The Hebukehe Formation is widely distributed in western Junggar. It is the synonym of the Hongguleleng Formation. This paper presents abundant fossils from the clastic strata which were previously assigned to the Lower Carboniferous Hebukehe Formation in Kelasaileke Mountain, western Junggar. These fossils include trilobites Phacops sp., ammonoids Manticoceras sp., brachiopods Tylothyris sp., Aulacella sp., "Mucrospirifer" sp. and Cyrtospirifer sp., plants Leptophloeum rhombicum, Syringodendron sp. and Knorria sp.. The age of these fossils is attributed to the Late Devonian. According to the lithologic association, the fossiliferous strata are redefined as the Upper Devonian Tielieketi Formation, rather than the Hongguleleng Formation. Regional geological survey reveals that the Upper Devonian of Mayili Mountain stratomicroregion is only composed of the Tielieketi Formation, without the Hongguleleng Formation. The latter is only distributed in the Shaerbuerti Mountain stratomicroregion. The boundary of the two stratomicroregions is the deep fault located in northern Mengbulake to south slope of Xiemisitai Mountain. These two stratomicroregions experienced obvious sedimentary differentiation during the Late Devonian, and gradually evolved into the evolutional stage of uniform basin environment until the early Early Carboniferous, announcing a gradual disappearance of stratigraphic regionalization of the stratomicroregions.
Key words: Late Devonian    Tielieketi Formation    Hebukehe Formation    Leptophloeum rhombicum    stratigraphic regionalization    western Junggar    Xinjiang    geological survey engineering    

1 引言

西准噶尔是中亚造山带的重要组成部分(Windley et al., 2007; Xiao et al., 2008),区内广泛分布泥盆纪—石炭纪地层,其中尤以晚泥盆世—早石炭世地层出露最广。但由于造山带地层均不同程度地受到后期岩浆、构造活动的改造或破坏(徐盛林,2019),再加上研究区自然条件恶劣,通达条件差,很多地区泥盆纪—石炭纪地层划分对比与时代研究基础较差,甚至仍处在1970—1980年代的区域地质调查基础上,如额敏东部、谢米斯台山、白杨河上游等。研究程度略高的地区在地层划分对比及时代认识上至今仍存在不同的意见,主要表现在造山带地层划分混乱、岩石地层单位使用不规范以及部分岩石地层单元的时代众说纷纭等,直接导致了区域地层格架难以建立。

西准噶尔北部的和什托洛盖周边地区至额敏县东北部一带的上泥盆统—下石炭统出露较好,曾被作为研究我国北方泥盆系—石炭系界线的重点地区之一(侯鸿飞等,1979赵治信,1986许汉奎等,1990肖世禄等,1991吴乃元,1991Hou et al., 1993; 夏凤生, 1996, 1997马学平等, 2013, 2015Suttner et al., 2014)。这一带界线附近的地层曾长期被划为和布克河组,并认为其时代为早石炭世早期或包含一部分晚泥盆世沉积(吴乃元等,1983张梓歆,1985蔡土赐,1986赵治信,1986)。后来,越来越多的学者认识到和布克河组是洪古勒楞组的晚出异名而应废弃(肖世禄等,1992蔡土赐,1999马学平等,2013),但对于区域上广泛存在的“和布克河组”如何处置并没有提出详细的意见,一般是默认将原和布克河组的地层单元改称为洪古勒楞组。然而,近几年的野外地质调查发现,多地的和布克河组包含了至少两套不同的岩石地层单元(王志宏等,2014纵瑞文等,2015),并不能仅仅改动一个岩石地层单位名称那样简单处理。近期,笔者在西准噶尔地区克拉赛勒克山原“和布克河组”中发现了丰富的晚泥盆世动、植物化石,并根据其岩性组合特征,将其厘定为上泥盆统铁列克提组,并以此对西准噶尔北部的地层区划和古地理演化提出新的认识。

2 地层特征

克拉赛勒克山位于和布克赛尔蒙古自治县和什托洛盖镇西南约10 km处(图 1),东端距217国道仅2 km,为和什托洛盖山间盆地内的一座孤山,东西长约20 km,南北最宽约4 km,周围均是中—新生代地层构成的戈壁地貌,主要由火山碎屑岩、正常碎屑岩夹钙质碎屑岩和火山岩组成,下部夹少量的灰岩薄层或透镜体。1:20万《乌尔禾幅》在该地区进行区域地质调查时将其全部划为下石炭统和布克河组,之后再无相关地层学工作。后来和布克河组被厘定为洪古勒楞组的晚出异名(蔡土赐,1999马学平等,2013),在一些文献或地质图件中,又将其改称为洪古勒楞组(石冰清,2013)。本文根据新材料的发现,将其厘定为上泥盆统铁列克提组,该组由新疆地质局区域地质测量大队(1971)在《塔勒艾勒克幅》中创名,为一套火山碎屑岩、正常碎屑岩组合。在克拉赛勒克山东段该组出露较为齐全,化石丰富,剖面特征如下:

图 1 西准噶尔克拉赛勒克山位置与地质简图(图a据龚一鸣等, 2015, 图b据1:20万《乌尔禾幅》和1:25万《铁厂沟镇幅》改编) Fig. 1 Location and geological map of Kelasaileke Mountain, western Junggar (Fig. a modified from Gong et al., 2015, Fig. b modified from the 1:200, 000 geological map of Urho and the 1:250000 geological map of Tiechanggou Town)

克拉赛勒克山东段铁列克提组剖面(原称“和布克河组”,据1:20万《乌尔禾幅》修改):

上覆地层:下侏罗统八道湾组(J1b

~~~~~~~~~~~角度不整合~~~~~~~~~~~~

上泥盆统铁列克提组(D3tl)     1744.2 m

35.灰绿色细粒长石岩屑砂岩,夹粉砂岩。      37.3 m

34.灰绿色凝灰质粗砂岩,夹凝灰质粉砂岩。     37.3 m

33.灰绿色凝灰质细砂岩,夹凝灰质粗砂岩。     35.1 m

32.深灰色辉石安山玢岩,夹凝灰质砂岩。      8.2 m

31.灰绿色凝灰质中粒砂岩,夹凝灰质细、粗砂岩。      23.4 m

30.灰绿色凝灰质粗砂岩,夹细砾岩。      44.4 m

29.灰绿、黄绿色凝灰质细砂岩,夹凝灰质粗砂岩。     73.7 m

28.灰绿、灰黄色凝灰质细砂岩与凝灰质粗砂岩互层。      88.3 m

27.灰绿、灰紫色杏仁状拉斑玄武岩,夹凝灰质砂砾岩      9.7 m

26.灰绿、灰紫色晶屑岩屑凝灰岩,夹凝灰质角砾岩。     36.1 m

25.灰、灰紫色凝灰质含砾粗砂岩,夹凝灰质细砂岩。      28.9 m

24.深灰色安山玢岩。      8.2 m

23.灰紫色凝灰质含砾粗砂岩,夹凝灰质细砂岩。     17.5 m

22.灰紫色含角砾安山质英安斑岩。      33.3 m

21.灰紫色安山岩,夹含火山角砾安山岩。      19.5 m

20.灰绿色凝灰质细砂岩,夹凝灰质粗砂岩。     78.5 m

19.灰紫色凝灰质含角砾粗砂岩,夹凝灰质细砂岩及英安斑岩。      47.1 m

18.灰紫色英安斑岩。      9.5 m

17.灰绿色火山灰凝灰岩,夹凝灰质细砂岩。     5.8 m

16.灰绿色凝灰质细砂岩与深灰、灰绿、灰紫色凝灰质含角砾粗砂岩互层。     127.4 m

15.灰紫色熔结角砾岩。      129.1 m

14.灰绿色凝灰质中—粗粒砂岩,夹凝灰质砾岩。      29.2 m

13.灰绿色粉砂岩。     102.4 m

12.灰绿色粉砂岩,夹灰色钙质粗砂岩、砂砾岩,产植物Lepidosigillaria? sp.,腕足类Hemiplethorhynchus sp., Cyrtospirifer sp.。      65.1 m

11.灰白色硅质岩。      18.3 m

10.黄绿色凝灰质粉砂岩,产植物碎片及腕足类“Mcrospirifer”sp., Cyrtospirifer sp., Athyris sp.。      70.7 m

9.灰绿色钙质粗砂岩,夹砾岩、含砾粗砂岩。      14.5 m

8.灰绿色钙质粉砂岩,夹灰色砂砾岩。      37.2 m

7.灰绿色细砂岩,夹砂砾岩,产植物碎片。      128.7 m

6.暗灰色含炭质泥质粉砂岩,夹细砂岩。      15.5 m

5.灰色钙质砂砾岩,夹粗砂岩。      25.1 m

4.黄绿色钙质粉砂岩。      64.4 m

3.深灰、灰绿色凝灰质粉砂岩与凝灰质细砂岩互层,产植物Knorria sp.,腕足类Cyrtospirifer sp., Aulacella sp., “Mucrospirifer” sp., “Mucrospiriferbiplicatus (Weller), Camarotoechia? sp., Praewaagenoconcha sp., 三叶虫Phacops sp.。      100.7 m

2.黄绿色钙质细砂岩、粉砂岩,夹薄层生屑灰岩,产植物Leptophloeum rhombicumSyringodendron sp.,Knorria sp.,腕足类Tylothyris sp., Cyrtospirifer sp., Tenticospirifer gortanifomis Zhang, Schuchertella sp., Leptagonia sp., Schizophoria cf. swallovi (Hall), Camarotoechia? mutata (Hall),生屑灰岩中还产菊石Manticoceras sp.。      61.7 m

1.灰色钙质细砂岩,夹粉砂岩、砂砾岩,产植物化石Lepidodendropsis sp., 腕足类Cyrtospirifer sp., “Mucrospirifer”sp., Athyris sp., Schuchertella sp.。      112.4 m

未见底

3 新材料的发现及其时代

野外期间,在克拉赛勒克山东段相当于上述剖面第2和3层内采集到了丰富的动、植物化石(化石点GPS: N46°26′34.26″,E85°54′23.11″),其中第2层中包括:菊石Manticoceras sp.,腕足类Tylothyris sp.,植物Leptophloeum rhombicumSyringodendron sp.,Knorria sp.;第3层采集到三叶虫Phacops sp.,腕足类Aulacella sp.,“Mucrospirifer” sp.,Cyrtospirifer sp.,植物Knorria sp.(图 2)。其中具有重要时代意义的为Leptophloeum rhombicumPhacops sp.和Manticoceras sp.。Leptophloeum rhombicum是全球广泛分布的晚泥盆世标准化石(李星学等, 1984, 1986),在中国几乎所有地区的晚泥盆世陆相或海-陆交互相地层中都有该种的发现——在新疆准噶尔盆地周边的上泥盆统朱鲁木特组、铁列克提组、卡西翁组、可克安库都克组都有过报道(窦亚伟等,1983唐文松,1985李星学等,1986)。三叶虫Phacops sp.属于镜眼虫目,该目在泥盆纪末期的大灭绝中全部消失,没有越过泥盆系—石炭系界线(Feist, 1991)。Phacops是泥盆纪地层中的常见分子,在广西北部和贵州南部的上泥盆统以及西准噶尔洪古勒楞组灰岩段中均有报道(Yuan et al., 1998);在桂林南边村泥盆系—石炭系界线层型辅助剖面上也有该属的报道,最高层位位于泥盆系—石炭系界线之下(Zhu, 1988)。菊石Manticoceras是晚泥盆世弗拉期的标准化石,在湖南上泥盆统佘田桥组和广西的榴江组中都有过报道(徐光洪等,1977)。

图 2 西准噶尔克拉赛勒克山晚泥盆世动物和植物化石 a~d—Phacops sp.;a—不完整头甲内模(KL3-07);b—头甲外模(KL3-05);c, d—尾甲(KL3-11,KL3-09);e—Aulacella sp.(KL3-25);f— “Mucrospirifer”sp.(KL3-02);g—Tylothyris sp.(KL2-22);h—Manticoceras sp.(KL2-30);i—Cyrtospirifer sp.(KL3-01);j— Syringodendron sp.(KL2-02);k-n—Leptophloeum rhombicum(KL2-05,KL2-06,KL2-13,KL2-07);o—Knorria sp.(KL02-03) Fig. 2 Late Devonian animal and plant fossils from Kelasaileke Mountaion, western Junggar a~d-Phacops sp., Fig. a is the internal model of incomplete cephalon (KL3-07);b-the external mold of cephalon (KL3-05);c, d-pygidia (KL3-11, KL3-09);e-Aulacella sp. (KL3-25);f-"Mucrospirifer"sp. (KL3-02). g-Tylothyris sp. (KL2-22). h-Manticoceras sp. (KL2-30);i-Cyrtospirifer sp. (KL3-01);j-Syringodendron sp. (KL2-02);k-n-Leptophloeum rhombicum (KL2-05, KL2-06, KL2-13, KL2-07);o-Knorria sp. (KL02-03)

Syringodendron是一种木本石松类茎面中皮相的一种保存状态的化石,在欧美地区常见于石炭纪地层中(如David et al., 2005Arden et al., 2010),但在中国湖北汉阳上泥盆统五通组(陈公信,1984)、四川龙门山地区中泥盆统金宝石组和上泥盆统沙窝子组中(李星学等,1982王洪峰,2003)也有该属的分布。Knorria是鳞木类的内模相,在晚古生代的地层中很常见,中国四川龙门山(李星学等,1982)、浙江(陈其奭,1999)晚泥盆世地层中都有报道。腕足类Cyrtospirifer是西准噶尔地区晚泥盆世地层中的常见分子,“Mucrospirifer”和Aulacella常见于泥盆纪地层中,Tylothyris是泥盆系—石炭系界线附近的常见属种,在晚泥盆世—早石炭世地层中都有过报道(张川等,1983)。因此,新发现的这些化石时代定为晚泥盆世较为合适。

1:20万《乌尔禾幅》曾在克拉赛勒克山东段采集到植物Lepidosigillaria? sp., Lepidodendropsis sp.;腕足类Hemiplethorhynchus sp., Cyrtospirifer sp., Mucrospirifer sp., Athyris sp., Mucrospirifer biplicatus (Weller), Camarotoechia? sp., Praewaagenoconcha sp., Tenticospirifer gortanifomis Zhang, Schuchertella sp., Leptagonia sp., Schizophoria cf. swallovi (Hall), Camarotoechia? mutata;三叶虫Phacops sp.,并以此认为其时代为早石炭世。上述这些化石仅有名单没有图版,无法检查是否所有属种都鉴定准确;即便如此,从所列的化石名单来看,其中并无早石炭世的标准分子,大部分都是晚泥盆世和早石炭世广泛存在的属种,甚至有一些是晚泥盆世的典型分子,如植物LepidosigillariaLepidodendropsis在中泥盆世—早石炭世地层中都存在(窦亚伟等,1983);腕足类这些属是晚泥盆世—早石炭世或泥盆系—石炭系界线附近地层中的常见类型,在晚泥盆世地层中都曾有过报道(McGhee, 1976张川等,1983Brice et al., 2007; 宗普等, 2012a, 2012bBecker et al., 2013Zong et al., 2018);三叶虫Phacops则是泥盆纪的常见分子,没有跨过泥盆系—石炭系界线(Feist, 1991)。综上所述,克拉赛勒克山这套以碎屑岩为主的地层时代应为晚泥盆世,其下部至少包括一部分弗拉期的沉积,目前尚无可延续到早石炭世的时代依据。

4 克拉赛勒克山地层归属

和布克河组被厘定为洪古勒楞组的晚出异名后,其时代也被认为主要是晚泥盆世(马学平等,2013Ma et al., 2017)。西准噶尔地区的洪古勒楞组根据岩性可分为3段:下段为薄层生屑灰岩、介壳灰岩、泥灰岩及钙质粉砂岩、页岩;中段为灰绿、灰紫色火山碎屑岩及少量砂屑灰岩;上段则为灰黄色钙质碎屑岩夹少量生屑灰岩(Hou et al., 1993)。克拉赛勒克山的这套火山碎屑岩地层虽然在时代上和洪古勒楞组相近,但岩性组合特征与洪古勒楞组存在明显的差异,在生物组合面貌和沉积环境上也有差别。洪古勒楞组除了腕足类、腹足类、头足类等壳相生物外,还含有较多的珊瑚、层孔虫等礁相生物,同时还有保存较好的棘皮动物化石(海百合、海蕾等)(Waters et al., 2003; Webster et al., 2009),代表了富钙的正常浅海沉积。克拉赛勒克山这套碎屑岩地层中的动物化石以壳相生物为主,同时还含有丰富的植物茎干化石,可能代表了近岸富泥、沙沉积。因此,克拉赛勒克山的这套地层不能划归到和布克河组的替代名称——洪古勒楞组中。

洪古勒楞组下伏地层朱鲁木特组的时代也为晚泥盆世,但该组由一套河流相的砂砾岩组成(肖世禄等,1991),与克拉赛勒克山的这套含海相动物化石的碎屑岩地层容易区分。在额敏东北部塔克台高原周围新建的晚泥盆世塔克台组也含大量火山碎屑岩,与之区别在于塔克台组上部钙质碎屑岩含量明显增多,并夹有煤层(纵瑞文等,2015)。中哈边境塔尔巴哈台山—萨吾尔山地区的塔尔巴哈台组中下部主体为一套含深水相遗迹化石的复理石沉积,夹少量浅海相钙质碎屑岩(纵瑞文等,2014Fan et al., 2016),易与该套地层区分。西准噶尔西南部另一套晚泥盆世地层铁列克提组主要由陆源碎屑岩、火山碎屑岩夹少量碳酸盐岩组成,命名时定义为:上部为灰、绿色凝灰质粉砂岩与凝灰岩互层;中部为灰、黄绿灰、绿灰、暗灰色长石砂岩、砂砾岩、凝灰质粉砂岩及凝灰质砾状砂岩,夹薄层生物灰岩;下部为绿灰色圆砾岩。刘松柏等(2014)认为铁列克提组的层型剖面属于中泥盆统库鲁木迪组,重新指定托里县达尔塔斯剖面作为铁列克提组的层型剖面,并将其岩性组合特征厘定为“一套陆源碎屑岩、火山碎屑沉积岩夹火山碎屑岩及碳酸盐岩组合,时代仍为晚泥盆世”。克拉赛勒克山这套碎屑岩地层可与铁列克提组进行对比,第1~12层以陆源碎屑岩为主,夹火山碎屑岩和少量碳酸盐岩的地层,相当于铁列克提组层型剖面的中部;第13~35层火山碎屑岩为主夹少量火山岩及陆源碎屑岩的地层可与层型剖面的上部对比。克拉赛勒克山缺失铁列克提组下部的圆砾岩,且火山碎屑物质含量及粗碎屑含量较层型剖面略高。因此,我们将克拉赛勒克山这套碎屑岩地层划为铁列克提组,这也是首次在西准噶尔北部发现该套地层,极大地延伸了该组的区域分布范围。

5 西准噶尔北部地层区划的讨论

由于造山带地层系统的复杂性,西准噶尔地区地层划分对比与地层区划长期存在争议,尽管西准噶尔早已被划分为北准噶尔地层分区和南准噶尔—北天山地层分区,并自北向南分为4个地层小区:萨吾尔山地层小区、沙尔布尔提山地层小区、玛依力山地层小区和克拉玛依地层小区(蔡土赐,1999)。但是一些地层小区甚至地层分区之间的具体界线仍存在不同的意见,对于北准噶尔地层分区内的玛依力山地层小区和沙尔布尔提山地层小区的界线,在新疆岩石地层清理(蔡土赐,1999)及一些区调资料❶❹中均以近东西向的铁厂沟至和什托洛盖山间盆地(或白杨河谷地)为界;北侧为沙尔布尔提山地层小区,南侧为玛依力山地层小区,将孟布拉克—白杨镇—白砾山—克拉赛勒克山一带的泥盆纪、石炭纪及少量二叠纪地层划到了沙尔布尔提山地层小区内。龚一鸣等(2015)通过对孟布拉克和白杨镇一带的泥盆—石炭纪地层的研究,认为它们与巴尔雷克山及铁厂沟南部的泥盆纪、石炭纪地层特征基本一致,而与沙尔布尔提山及谢米斯台山一带同期地层的岩石组合特征和沉积环境的差异较大,以此将这一带的晚古生代地层划到玛依力山地层小区,并将其与沙尔布尔提山地层小区的界线划定在额敏县孟布拉克北部的东西向大断裂处,向东经过谢米斯台山南侧延伸至沙尔布尔提山南坡(图 1a)。

该方案虽将克拉赛勒克山划归到了玛依力山地层小区,由于过去没有做详细的地层厘定工作,仅将原划为和布克河组的地层改称为洪古勒楞组,这样就导致了洪古勒楞组同时出现在了两个地层小区,也致使玛依力山地层小区在晚泥盆世出现了洪古勒楞组和铁列克提组两套不同的沉积记录,在古地理重建方面推测在晚泥盆世两个地层小区的分区性已逐渐消失(龚一鸣等,2015)。通过对克拉赛勒克山原和布克河组的厘定,证实了这套碎屑岩地层并不是洪古勒楞组,而属于南部玛依力山地层小区的铁列克提组。在克拉赛勒克山以西还有两处过去被划为和布克河组,分别位于白砾山和杨庄西部谢米斯台断裂以南地区。本次工作中也对他们展开了调查,发现均难以归入现在的洪古勒楞组,如白砾山一带为一套火山碎屑岩地层,与克拉赛勒克山相似都应归于铁列克提组;杨庄西部谢米斯台断裂之南的和布克河组为一套类复理石相的碎屑岩地层,与下石炭统黑山头组下部碎屑岩段相似。这样,洪古勒楞组就没有越过孟布拉克北—谢米斯台断裂带,即洪古勒楞组仅分布在沙尔布尔提山地层小区,南侧的玛依力山地层小区晚泥盆世地层全部由铁列克提组组成(图 3)。

图 3 西准噶尔晚古生代地层区划与地层对比(据龚一鸣等,2015纵瑞文等,2015改编) Fig. 3 Late Paleozoic stratigraphic regionalization and correlation in western Junggar (modified from Gong et al., 2015; Zong et al., 2015)

玛依力山和沙尔布尔提山两个地层小区在泥盆纪具有明显不同的沉积演化序列和岩相组合特征。早泥盆世,玛依力山地层小区为以马拉苏组为代表的火山碎屑质滨—浅海环境,北部的沙尔布尔提山地层小区则为以和布克赛尔组为代表的浅海环境,以碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩沉积为主;早泥盆世晚期,北准噶尔地层分区内海水普遍加深,并一直持续到中泥盆世早期,此时沉积环境差异不明显,主体为浅海环境。到中泥盆世晚期,谢米斯台山和沙尔布尔提山一带快速海退,沉积了一套以呼吉尔斯特组为代表的辫状河流相地层。玛依力山地层小区则为一套巨厚的浅海相火山碎屑岩组合。进入晚泥盆世,沙尔布尔提山地层小区在弗拉期仍为辫状河环境,由含植物化石的朱鲁木特组砂砾岩组成;法门期则为以洪古勒楞组碎屑岩-碳酸盐岩为代表的浅海环境。玛依力山地层小区则形成了以铁列克提组正常碎屑岩、火山碎屑岩为代表的滨—浅海环境。直到早石炭世,黑山头组在整个北准噶尔地层分区的出现,代表了西准噶尔北部各地区进入了统一的沉积演化环境,也说明了地层小区界线在该地区逐渐消失(图 3)。

6 结论

(1)西准噶尔克拉赛勒克山原划为和布克河组的一套地层中发现了三叶虫、菊石、腕足类和植物化石等,显示其时代为晚泥盆世,根据岩性组合特征,将其厘定为上泥盆统铁列克提组。

(2)在地层区划上,沙尔布尔提地层小区与南侧的玛依力山地层小区之间以谢米斯台山南侧的孟布拉克北—谢米斯台断裂为界,断裂以南的和布克河组被厘定为铁列克提组或黑山头组,洪古勒楞组仅分布在沙尔布尔提山地层小区。

(3)玛依力山和沙尔布尔提山地层小区在晚泥盆世地层分区性明显,前者为铁列克提组富泥沙的滨—浅海相碎屑岩沉积,后者由下部的辫状河相砂砾岩和上部的浅海相碳酸盐岩-碎屑岩组成,到早石炭世黑山头组的出现,地层分区性在西准噶尔北部才消失。

注释

❶新疆维吾尔自治区地质局. 1979. 1:20万《乌尔禾幅》区域地质调查报告[R].

❷中国地质大学(武汉)地质调查研究院. 2013. 1:25万《铁厂沟镇幅》区域地质调查报告[R].

❸新疆地质局区域地质测量大队. 1971. 1:20万《塔勒艾勒克幅》地质图说明书[R].

❹新疆维吾尔自治区地质矿产局. 1983. 1:20万《白杨河幅》区域地质调查报告(区域地质部分)[R].

致谢: 参加野外工作的还有中国地质大学(武汉)研究生郭超、董俊彦、申震同学,两位审稿专家提出了宝贵的修改意见和建议,在此表示感谢!

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