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  中国地质 2019, Vol. 46 Issue (6): 1410-1432  
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张晓飞, 陈国超, 周毅, 李沅柏, 滕超, 王必任, 庞振山, 曹侃, 魏均启. 2019. 内蒙古西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩特征及其形成构造背景[J]. 中国地质, 46(6): 1410-1432.  
Zhang Xiaofei, Chen Guochao, Zhou Yi, Li Yuanbai, Teng Chao, Wang Biren, Pang Zhenshan, Cao Kan, Wei Junqi. 2019. Characteristics and tectonic setting of volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula of Xi Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia[J]. Geology in China, 46(6): 1410-1432. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

内蒙古西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩特征及其形成构造背景
张晓飞1,2,3,4, 陈国超5, 周毅4, 李沅柏4, 滕超4, 王必任4, 庞振山1,3, 曹侃6, 魏均启7    
1. 中国地质调查局发展研究中心, 北京 100037;
2. 中国地质大学, 地球科学与资源学院, 北京, 100083;
3. 自然资源部矿产勘查技术指导中心, 北京 100083;
4. 中国地质调查局自然资源实物地质资料中心, 河北 燕郊 065201;
5. 南阳理工学院, 河南 南阳 47300;
6. 内蒙古地质勘查有限责任公司, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010010;
7. 国土资源部稀土稀有稀散矿产重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430034
摘要:大兴安岭中生代火山岩的成因和构造背景一直存在争议。内蒙古西乌旗地区发育大面积的晚中生代火山岩,是中国东部巨型火山岩带的重要组成部分。本文对西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩开展了野外地质、岩石学、锆石U-Pb同位素年代学、地球化学研究,以便对其岩石成因和构造背景给予制约。白音高老组火山岩主要由流纹岩及流纹质火山碎屑岩等一套中酸性火山岩组成。采集其中的球粒流纹岩和英安斑岩进行LA-ICP-MS锆石UPb测年,测年锆石的CL图和Th/U值(0.34~1.25)指示其为岩浆成因锆石,测年结果分别为(140±0.8)Ma和(133±0.7)Ma,表明这套火山岩的形成时代为早白垩世早期。岩石地球化学研究表明,白音高老组火山岩属高钾钙碱性系列,具高硅、富碱、贫镁、钙,高FeOT/MgO比值,低Mg#值、Nb/Ta比值的特征;相对富集轻稀土元素,亏损重稀土元素;大部分样品富集LILE,而亏损Ba、Sr和HFSE,具A型花岗岩地球化学特征,形成于伸展构造背景,为地壳部分熔融的结果。结合区域中生代火山岩的空间展布特征,认为该火山岩形成应与蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋闭合碰撞后伸展和古太平洋板块的俯冲作用有关。
关键词大兴安岭    西乌旗    白音高老组    早白垩世    A型花岗岩    伸展构造环境    地质调查工程    
中图分类号:P597+.3;P588.14            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2019)06-1410-23
Characteristics and tectonic setting of volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula of Xi Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia
ZHANG Xiaofei1,2,3,4, CHEN Guochao5, ZHOU Yi4, LI Yuanbai4, TENG Chao4, WANG Biren4, PANG Zhenshan1,3, CAO Kan6, WEI Junqi7    
1. Development and Research Centre, China Geological Survey, Beijing 100037, China;
2. School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China;
3. Mineral Exploration Technical Guidance Center, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100083, China;
4. Cores and Samples center of Natural Resources, China Geological Survey, Yanjiao 065201, Hebei, China;
5. Nanyang Institutte of Technology, Nanyang 47300, Henan, China;
6. Inner Mongolia geological prospecting Co., Ltd. Hohot 010010, InnerMongolia, China;
7. Key Laboratory of Rare Mineral, Ministry of Land and Resources, Wuhan 430034, China
Abstract: There exist different opinions concerning the petrogenesis and tectonic background of Mesozoic volcanic rocks developed in the Da Hinggan Mountains. The Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the Xi Ujimqin Banner of Inner Mongoliais a very important part of the huge volcanic rock belt in eastern China.The authors studied the volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula of Xi Ujimqin Banner in such aspects as field occurrence,petrology,zircon U-Pb isotopic geochronology and geochemisty in order to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic background. The volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation are composed of rhyolite and volcanic clastic,which are a set of felsic volcanic rocks. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of analyzed zircons of the pyromeride and dacite porphyry from Baiyingaolao Formation and their Th/U ratios(0.34-1.25) imply the igneous origin. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating shows that their ages are about(140±0.8) Ma and(133±0.7) Ma respectively,suggesting the early period of Early Cretaceous. Petrological and geochemical data reveal that the rocks belong to the high potassium calc-alkaline rock series characterized by rich Si and alkali,poor magnesium and calcium,high FeOT/MgO ratio and low Mg#,Nb/Ta ratio. LREE are richer than HREE.The trace element geochemistry is characterized evidently by enrichment of LILE,depletion of Ba,Sr and HFSE. All these geochemical characteristics of rocks show an affinity with the A-type granites,which were most probably formed in an extensional setting and originated from the partial melting of the crust. Combined with spacial distribution of the Mesozoic volcanic rocks,the authors hold that they were probably related to the post-orogenic extension following the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen,and were also affected by the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.
Key words: Da Hinggan Mountains    Xi Ujimqin Banner    Baiyingaolao Formation    Early Cretaceous    A-type granite    extensional environment    geological survey engineering    

1 引言

大兴安岭地区位于中亚造山带东段,古生代以来,该区经历了古亚洲洋闭合、蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋闭合及古太平洋板块俯冲等演化阶段,其构造和岩浆作用复杂多样(赵越等,1994吴福元等,1999Zorin,1999Kravchinsky et al., 2002Wu et al., 2002李锦轶等,2004Sorokin et al., 2004孙德有等,2004邵济安等, 2010, 2015佘宏全等,2012Chen et al., 2016Dash et al., 2016)。该地区中生代岩浆活动强烈,形成了大面积的火山岩和众多的花岗岩(吕志成等,2004Ying et al., 2010孟凡超等,2013Xu et al., 2013a许文良等,2013b赵丕忠等,2014),既是重要的多金属成矿带,也是研究中国乃至东北亚中生代构造岩浆演化的重要地区之一(葛文春等,1999Davis et al., 2001林强等,2004Wu et al., 2011马玉波等,2016)。而大兴安岭地区中生代火山岩的成因及其产生的构造背景争议较大,该问题的研究对于揭示区内中生代构造−岩浆作用和成矿地质背景具有重要的意义。

大兴安岭地区中生代火山活动主要发生在晚侏罗世—早白垩世(张吉衡,2009),在中南部地区主要出露为满克头鄂博组、玛尼吐组、白音高老组和梅勒图组。早期研究者对白音高老组火山岩进行了大量研究工作,但在岩石的形成时代、岩石成因和构造背景上还存在争议。形成时代上有晚侏罗世(赵国龙等,1989李文国等,1996邵积东等,2011)、早白垩世(葛文春等,2001张吉衡,2009苟军等,2010王建国等,2013刘哲等,2017)。岩石成因上一般认为是陆壳部分熔融的产物,但有与A1型花岗岩(Jahn et al., 2000, 2001王兴安等,2012秦涛等,2014)、A2型花岗岩(王雄等,2015张学斌等,2015司秋亮等,2016)和Ⅰ型花岗岩(Wu et al., 2003Dong et al., 2014李研等,2017)相当的3种认识。构造背景上一般认为该期火山-岩浆活动是蒙古—鄂霍次克洋闭合后的后碰撞拉伸作用的响应(Fan et al., 2003孟恩等,2011徐美君等,2011Ouyang et al., 2013, 2015Xu et al., 2013aLi et al.2016刘凯等,2018);另有学者认为该期岩浆活动受控于古太平洋板块向古亚洲板块的俯冲作用(葛文春等,2007Zhang et al., 2010);还有部分学者认为岩浆作用与地幔柱相关(林强等,1998葛文春等, 1999, 2005)。存在上述争议的原因主要是中生代火山岩不同地区可能存在一定差异,地层划分不统一,研究对象不一致;早期研究,火山岩时代的确定主要依据岩石组合、古生物特征、区域地层对比和Rb−Sr、K−Ar及少量U−Pb同位素数据(赵国龙等,1989李文国等,1996邵积东等,2011张学斌等,2015)。

笔者在西乌旗罕乌拉地区呼格吉勒图、巴彦华、巴彦布拉格、彦吉嘎庙4个图幅1:5万区域地质填图基础上,以该区白音高老组火山岩为研究对象,进行岩石学、锆石U−Pb同位素年代学及岩石地球化学等方面研究,探讨该套岩石的成因、形成背景,希望对该地区中生代火山岩形成的构造背景提供科学依据。

2 区域地质背景 2.1 区域地质

内蒙古西乌旗地区位于华北板块与西伯利亚板块所夹持的中亚造山带南缘东段,处于贺根山蛇绿岩带和索伦山—西拉木伦河缝合带之间(图 1a),大兴安岭中生代火山岩带中南段。研究区位于西乌旗东北部罕乌拉地区,出露的地层单元由老至新依次为中元古界锡林浩特岩群,为一套二云母(石英)片岩、含石榴石英片岩夹斜长角闪岩,与下二叠统寿山沟组为逆断层接触。二叠系从下到上依此为:下二叠统寿山沟组,为一套浅变质海相细碎屑岩系组合,与大石寨组为逆断层接触;下二叠统大石寨组,为一套海相火山-沉积岩组合;中二叠统哲斯组,为一套滨浅海相碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩组合,发育较为丰富的珊瑚、腕足、海百合茎、苔藓虫化石。中生界见有上侏罗统满克头鄂博组,为一套酸性火山碎屑岩-沉积碎屑岩岩石组合,含植物化石;上侏罗统玛尼吐组,为一套中基性火山熔岩岩石组合;下白垩统白音高老组为一套中酸性火山熔岩、火山碎屑岩夹火山碎屑沉积岩岩石组合。区内岩浆活动发育,晚古生代—中生代以未变质的花岗岩—中酸性火山岩为主,总体呈北东—北东东向展布。早二叠世发育辉长岩、辉石闪长岩及碱长花岗岩侵入体、大石寨组火山岩;早、中三叠世发育花岗闪长岩、二长花岗岩侵入体;晚侏罗世—早白垩世发育陆相火山岩及早白垩世侵入体。

图 1 研究区大地构造位置图(a,据Xiao et al., 2003)及区域地质简图(b) 1—第四系;2—下白垩统白音高老组;3—上侏罗统玛尼吐组;4—上侏罗统满克头鄂博组;5—下二叠统大石寨组;6—下二叠统寿山沟组;7—中元古界锡林浩特岩群;8—早白垩世碱长花岗岩;9—早白垩世花岗斑岩;10—早白垩世英安斑岩;11—早中三叠世侵入岩;12—早二叠世侵入岩;13—不整合接触界线;14—实测断层;15—同位素年龄采样点及编号;16—剖面位置 Fig. 1 Regional geological location of the study area (a, after Xiao et al., 2003) and geological sketch map of the study area (b) 1-Quaternary; 2−Lower Cretaceous Baiyingaolao Formation; 3−Upper Jurassic Manitu Formation; 4−Upper Jurassic Manketouebo Formation; 5−Lower Permian Dashizhai Formation; 6−Lower Permian Shoushangou Formation; 7−Middle Proterozoic Xilinhot Group; 8−Early Cretaceous alkali–feldspar granite; 9−Early Cretaceous granite porphyry; 10−Early Cretaceous dacite porphyry; 11−Early–Middle Triassic intrusive rock; 12− Early Permian intrusive rock; 13−Unconformity; 14−Measured fault; 15−Isotopic age sampling position and serial number; 16−Location of section
2.2 白音高老组火山岩特征

白音高老组火山岩主要分布于研究区南部毛德图哈乌拉—温多尔查干一带,呈北东向展布,出露面积约75.5 km2,不整合覆盖在早二叠世辉石闪长岩、中三叠世二长花岗岩岩体之上,角度不整合覆盖在下二叠统寿山沟组、大石寨组之上。其分布见图 1b,实测剖面见图 2。岩石类型主要见有喷溢相:灰白色、灰紫色流纹岩、球粒流纹岩、黑曜岩;爆发相:灰白色流纹质(含角砾)凝灰岩、流纹质凝灰角砾岩、流纹质(含角砾)熔结凝灰岩、流纹质富晶屑熔结凝灰岩、英安质晶屑熔结凝灰岩等;次火山岩相:流纹斑岩、英安斑岩;喷发-沉积相:凝灰质砂砾岩等。火山岩相组合表现为爆发相-喷溢相系列组合,火山作用过程经历强烈爆发和宁静溢流的交互变化过程。火山活动晚期主要为次火山岩相产出,沿火山口或火山断裂(环形断裂及放射状断裂)侵入,形成似侵入岩的次火山岩。

图 2 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩实测剖面 1—砾岩;2—砂砾岩;3—粉砂岩;4—凝灰质粉砂岩;5—流纹质凝灰角砾岩;6—流纹质含角砾岩屑晶屑凝灰岩;7—流纹质含角砾岩屑凝灰岩;8—流纹质岩屑晶屑凝灰岩;9—流纹质晶屑凝灰岩;10—流纹质含角砾岩屑晶屑熔结凝灰岩;11—流纹质含角砾熔结凝灰岩;12—流纹质晶屑熔结凝灰岩;13—流纹质熔结凝灰岩;14—流纹岩;15—流纹斑岩;16—英安斑岩;17—不整合界线;18—地质代号;19—同位素年龄采样点及编号;20—产状 Fig. 2 Measured geological section of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula 1−Conglomerates; 2−Glutenites; 3−Siltstones; 4−Tuffaceous siltstones; 5−Rhyolitic tuff breccias; 6−Rhyolitic tuffs with breccia lithic and crystal clasts; 7−Rhyolitic tuffs with breccia and lithic clasts; 8−Rhyolitic tuffs with lithic and crystal clasts; 9−Rhyolitic tuffs with crystal clasts; 10−Rhyolitic welded tuffs with breccia lithic and crystal clasts; 11−Rhyolitic welded tuffs with breccia clasts; 12−Rhyolitic welded tuffs with crystal clasts; 13−Rhyolitic welded tuffs; 14−Rhyolite; 15−Rhyolite porphyry; 16−Dacite porphyry; 17−Unconformity; 18−Geological code; 19− Isotopic age sampling position and serial number; 20−Attitude

流纹岩呈灰白色—青灰色—紫红色,具流纹构造,斑状结构(图 3ab)。斑晶占5%~10%,主要由斜长石、钾长石和石英组成,粒径0.2~1.5 mm。斜长石呈板状,隐约可见聚片双晶,主要为钠−更长石;钾长石呈板状,发育熔蚀结构,可见斑块状条纹;石英呈熔蚀不规则粒状。基质中发育流纹结构,沿流纹脱玻化程度不同,主要以长英质脱玻霏细粒状、隐晶质结构为主。

图 3 白音高老组火山岩野外及显微照片 a, b—流纹岩; c, d—球粒流纹岩; e, f—流纹质晶屑熔结凝灰岩; g, h—英安斑岩; Q—石英; Pl—斜长石; Kf—钾长石; Bi—黑云母 Fig. 3 Field outcrop and microscopic characteristics of Baiyingaolao Formation a, b-Rhyolite; c, d-Pyromeride; e, f-Rhyolitic welded tuffs with crystal clasts; g, h-Dacite porphyry; Q−Quartz; Pl−Plagioclase; Kf−K-feldspar; Bi−Biotite

球粒流纹岩呈灰红色、浅紫色,野外露头上可见直径1~5 cm不等的石泡(图 3cd)。岩石具斑状结构、球粒结构。斑晶为斜长石、黑云母,自形程度高,粒径0.5~1 mm,含量小于5%。斜长石呈板状,聚片双晶宽窄不一,为钠更长石;黑云母呈鳞片状,褐色,表面浑浊;基质中圆形、椭圆形球粒结构发育,球粒细小密集,为纤维状长英质形成的放射状球体,直径0.15~1.0 mm,球粒之间被少量微粒长英质矿物和浑浊不规则的石英充填。副矿物主要为磷灰石、磁铁矿。

流纹质晶屑熔结凝灰岩,岩石风化面多呈灰红色、紫红色,新鲜面呈浅灰黑色、深紫色,假流动构造,熔结凝灰结构,主要由晶屑、浆屑及火山灰组成(图 3ef)。晶屑呈棱角状—次棱角状,少数自形晶,普遍有熔蚀,成分为石英、钾长石(条纹长石)、斜长石(黏土化),分布均匀,含量30%~40%。浆屑呈条带状、带状、透镜状,边缘轮廓不明显,脱玻化后边缘以纤维状长石为主,内部由嵌晶长英质或不规则粒状石英、长石组成,含量10%~20%。岩石中局部含角砾,且分布极其不均,含量1%~3%,其大小0.2~ 3 cm不等,大者可达5 cm,呈棱角状—次棱角状,岩性主要见有花岗岩、片岩、板岩等。

英安斑岩,呈次火山岩相产出,岩石多呈浅灰红色、灰黄色,坚硬致密,具块状构造,斑状结构(图 3gh)。斑晶主要为斜长石、钾长石,含量10%~ 30%,粒径0.5~4 mm。斜长石呈板状,聚片双晶发育,为更长石。钾长石呈宽板状、聚斑状,条纹稀疏斑块状,为条纹长石。少量暗色矿物呈短柱状、粒状。基质粒状石英或长英质颗粒中嵌布柱状、粒状长石微晶,无规则排列。粒状石英、长英质颗粒界限不清,粒径小于0.2 mm。

3 样品与分析测试

本次共采集锆石U−Pb定年样品2件,样品编号为Pm27−49(球粒流纹岩)和B1412(英安斑岩),地理坐标分别为44°42′08″N,118°55′56″E和44°42′54″ N,118°37′03″E。采集岩石地球化学样品7件,其中酸性火山岩岩性为流纹岩(B1404、B1408)、球粒流纹岩(Pm27−49)、流纹质晶屑熔结凝灰岩(Pm13− 21),次火山岩岩性为英安斑岩(B1412、Pm21−88、Pm21−137)。

3.1 锆石U-Pb定年

样品破碎和锆石挑选均由河北省区域地质调查研究所实验室完成。采用常规方法进行粉碎,用常规浮选方法分选出锆石后,再用双目镜挑选出晶形和透明度较好的锆石颗粒作为测定对象。将锆石颗粒黏在双面胶上,经环氧树脂固定—环氧树脂固化—表面抛光工序后,进行锆石显微照相和阴极发光照相。锆石的反射光和透射光显微照相及阴极发光(CL)显微照相在北京锆年领航科技有限公司完成。

锆石U−Pb同位素定年在天津地质矿产研究所利用LA − ICP − MS进行分析,ICP − MS为ThermoFisher公司制造的Neptune。本次实验采用的激光束斑直径为35 μm,以氦气作为剥蚀物质的载气。具体实验过程及试验方法见李怀坤等(2010)。数据采用Andersen软件对测试数据进行普通铅校正,年龄计算及谐和图绘制采用ISOPLOT(2.49版)软件完成。所有数据点年龄值的误差均为1σ,采用206Pb/238U年龄,其加权平均值具95%的置信度(Anderson,2002Ludwig,2003)。

3.2 主微量元素分析

样品碎样和地球化学成分测试工作均在河北省廊坊区域地质矿产调查研究所实验室完成。岩石样品首先粗碎至2~4 cm,然后用3%~5%的稀盐酸经超声波清除表面杂质,再研磨至200目。主量元素采用X射线荧光光谱仪法,分析精度优于5%;微量元素采用X Serises 2电感耦合等离子体质谱ICP-MS分析方法,精度和准确度优于5%。

4 分析结果 4.1 锆石U-Pb年代学

白音高老组火山岩样品Pm27−49(球粒流纹岩)的锆石为浅黄色-无色透明,在CL图像中,锆石自形程度较高,大部分呈长柱状,少量为短柱状(图 4a),长度多为90 ~240 μm。锆石具有明显的震荡环带,指示它们为岩浆成因锆石(Belousova et al., 2002吴元保等,2004)。锆石LA−ICP−MS U-Pb分析结果(表 1)显示,15个测点的206Pb/238U表面年龄为(136±1)Ma~(140±1)Ma(9、12号点分别为(156± 2)Ma、(151 ± 2)Ma,应为捕获锆石)。206Pb/238U和207Pb/235U谐和性较好,206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为(140±0.8)Ma(MSWD=0.13)(图 4c)。因此,球粒流纹岩的结晶年龄确定为(140±0.8)Ma。

图 4 罕乌拉地区白音高老组球粒流纹岩(Pm27−49)和英安斑岩(B1412)代表性单颗粒锆石阴极发光(CL)图像及其表面年龄(Ma)(a、b);罕乌拉地区白音高老组球粒流纹岩(Pm27−49)和英安斑岩(B1412)LA−ICP−MS锆石U−Pb年龄谐和图(c、d) Fig. 4 Cathodoluminescence images of typical single−crystal zircons and their apparent ages (Ma) for the pyromeride(Pm27−49) and dacite porphyry (B1412)of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula (a, b); LA−ICP−MS zircon U−Pb concordant age diagram for the pyromeride (Pm27−49) and dacite porphyry (B1412) of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula (c, d)
表 1 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩球粒流纹岩(Pm27-49)和英安斑岩(B1412)LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb同位素分析结果 Table 1 LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotope analysis results for the pyromeride(Pm27-49) and dacite porphyry(B1412) of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula

白音高老组火山岩样品B1412(英安斑岩)的锆石为浅黄色-无色透明,在CL图像中,大部分锆石较自形,多呈长柱状,少量为短柱状(图 4b),长度多为80~340 μm。锆石LA−ICP−MS U-Pb分析结果(表 1)显示,16个测点的206Pb/238U年龄介于(132±1)Ma~(136±1)Ma,206Pb/238U和207Pb/235U谐和性较好(图 4d),206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为(133 ± 0.7)Ma(MSWD=0.49)。因此,英安斑岩的结晶年龄确定为(133±0.7)Ma。

4.2 主量元素

白音高老组火山岩主量元素分析结果见表 2。白音高老组酸性火山岩样品的SiO2和碱含量较高,样品Pm13−21(流纹质晶屑熔结凝灰岩)的K2O含量明显高于其他样品,Na2O和Na2O/K2O比值低于其他样品,可能与分析样品里含有较多的钾长石晶屑有关。其余样品的SiO2含量为73.39%~77.26%;Na2O为3.29%~4.20%,平均为3.80%;K2O为3.44%~ 5.05%,平均为4.14%;(Na2O + K2O)为7.65% ~ 8.34%,Na2O/K2O为0.65~1.22,平均0.96。Al2O3、FeOT、CaO和MgO含量较低,其中Al2O3为11.58%~ 12.29%,平均为12.02%;FeOT为1.03%~1.44%,平均为1.18%;CaO为0.27%~0.85%,平均为0.47%;MgO为0.04%~0.08%,平均为0.06%,Mg#为4.69~12.23;A/CNK介于1.00~1.07,平均为1.04,为弱过铝质高钾钙碱性系列(图 5a)。分析结果(表 2)显示,白音高老组火山岩部分样品烧失量较大(B1404),可能遭受蚀变作用,K、Na等活动性较强的元素可能有一定程度的变化,本文采用Nb/Y−Zr/TiO2微量元素分类图解,样品落入到流纹岩范围(图 5b)。

表 2 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩主量元素(%)和微量元素(10–6)分析结果 Table 2 Major(%) and trace element (10–6) analysis results of volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula
图 5 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩SiO2−K2O图解(a)(转引自Rollinson,1993)和Nb/Y−Zr/TiO2分类命名图解(b)(转引自Wilson,1989) Fig. 5 SiO2−K2O diagrams (a, after Rollinson, 1993) and Nb/Y−Zr/TiO2 classifying−naming diagrams (b, after Wilson, 1989) for volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula

次火山岩与酸性火山岩相比具有较低的SiO2含量,为67.07% ~67.96%;较高的Na2O + K2O、Al2O3、FeOT、CaO和MgO含量,分别为8.36% ~9.80%、15.98% ~16.23%、2.88% ~3.30%、0.34% ~1.64%和0.18%~0.30%,以及较高的A/CNK和Mg#值,分别为1.15~1.20和8.89~15.47,为过铝质高钾钙碱性系列(图 5a)。在Nb/Y−Zr/TiO2图中,样品落入到流纹英安岩和英安岩范围(图 5b)。在哈克图解中(图略),次火山岩和酸性火山岩具有一定演化性,随着SiO2含量的增加,TiO2、FeOT、CaO、MgO和P2O5含量下降,Na2O、Al2O3变化不明显,K2O随SiO2含量的增加而增加。

4.3 稀土元素

白音高老组火山岩稀土元素分析结果见表 2。白音高老组酸性火山岩的稀土元素总量(ΣREE)为43.03×10-6~233.38×10-6,样品Pm13−21(流纹质晶屑熔结凝灰岩)含量明显低于其他样品,为43.03× 10-6,可能与样品含有较多石英、长石等晶屑有关。其余样品的稀土元素总量(ΣREE)为163.93×10-6~ 233.38×10-6;LREE/HREE比值为7.13~7.94,平均为7.59;(La/Yb)N比值为7.21~7.53,平均为7.37。在球粒陨石标准化稀土元素配分图解上(图 6a),稀土元素具有一定分馏,富集轻稀土元素,亏损重稀土元素。Yb含量在2.99 × 10-6~4.19 × 10-6,Lu含量在0.56×10-6~0.83×10-6,(Yb/Lu)N比值为5.08~5.74,平均为5.37;(Gd/Yb)N比值为1.24~1.55,平均为1.38,表现出平坦的重稀土元素配分模式。样品δEu介于0.03~0.09,显示明显Eu负异常。

图 6 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩球粒陨石标准化稀土元素配分图(a)(球粒陨石标准化数据引自Boynton, 1984)和原始地幔标准化蛛网图(b)(原始地幔标准化数据引自Sun and MC Donough., 1989) 下地壳、中地壳据Rudnick et al., 2003;大兴安岭地区白音高老组火山岩数据据苟军等, 2010Dong et al., 2014Kong et al., 2014秦涛等, 2014聂立军等, 2015王雄等, 2015Yang et al., 2015张乐彤等, 2015张学斌等, 2015 Fig. 6 Chondrite−normalized REE patterns(a)(normalization values after Boynton, 1984) and primitive mantle−normalized trace element spider diagrams (b)(normalization values after Sun and Mc Donough., 1989) for volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula lower crust, middle Crust(after Rudnick et al., 2003); data of Baiyingaolao Formation in the Da Hinggan Mountains (after Gou Jun et al., 2010; Dong Yu et al., 2014; Kong Yuanming et al., 2014;Qin Tao et al., 2014; Nie Lijun et al., 2015;Wang Xiong et al., 2015; Yang Wubin et al., 2015;Zhang Letong et al., 2015;Zhang Xuebin et al., 2015)

次火山岩的稀土元素总量(REE)低于酸性火山岩,为130.96×10-6~141.39×10-6;(La/Yb)N比值低于酸性火山岩,为6.57~7.11;(Gd/Yb)N比值高于酸性火山岩,为1.56~1.62。整体上与酸性火山岩相似,稀土元素具有一定分馏,富集轻稀土元素,亏损重稀土元素(图 6a)。样品δEu介于0.86~1.00,具有轻微的Eu负异常。

4.4 微量元素

白音高老组火山岩微量元素分析结果见表 2。在原始地幔标准化微量元素蛛网图中(图 6b),白音高老组火山岩整体表现为富集Rb、Th、Cs等大离子亲石元素(LILE),亏损Sr和Nb、Ta、P、Ti等高场强元素(HFSE)。但酸性火山岩与次火山岩具有一定区别,酸性火山岩明显亏损Ba、Sr、P、Ti元素,而次火山岩具有Ba、Zr、Hf的正异常。酸性火山岩的Rb含量为131.50×10-6~234.90×10-6,Sr含量为16.13× 10-6~64.12×10-6,Y含量介于28.36×10-6~34.73×10-6,Rb/Sr和Sr/Y比值分别为3.57~9.59和0.46~2.26;Nb含量为8.65×10-6~14.19×10-6,Ta含量为1.15×10-6~ 1.29×10-6,Nb/Ta比值为7.51~11.46,平均为9.37;Cr含量变化范围较大,介于2.68×10-6~14.60×10-6,平均为7.33×10-6;Ni含量介于1.02×10-6~21.94×10-6,平均为8.18×10-6

次火山岩Rb/Sr比值小于酸性火山岩,为0.47~ 1.42;Sr/Y和Nb/Ta比值大于酸性火山岩,分别为3.69~11.20和12.36~13.18;Cr和Ni含量较为稳定,分别为3.58×10-6~5.55×10-6和1.96×10-6~2.87×10-6

5 讨论 5.1 形成时代

内蒙古自治区地质局区域地质测量队在1976年1:20万罕乌拉幅区调中将该套火山岩划归为晚侏罗世,缺少精确的同位素年代学及岩石地球化学资料。本文研究的西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组喷溢相球粒流纹岩和次火山岩相英安斑岩中的锆石多呈自形,内部结构清晰,生长震荡环带发育,Th/U值较高(0.34~1.25),表明锆石为岩浆成因,因此所测得的年龄代表岩浆结晶年龄。球粒流纹岩的形成时代为(140±0.8)Ma(MSWD=0.13),英安斑岩的形成时代为(133±0.7)Ma(MSWD=0.49),该区白音高老组火山岩的形成时代介于140~133 Ma,应为早白垩世早期。对大兴安岭地区白音高老组测年数据进行归纳整理(表 3),60个年龄数据表明其形成年龄介于144~121 Ma,集中于141~124 Ma,整体上没有明显的间断(图 7),与本文结果相符。在球粒流纹岩样品中见有捕获锆石(9、12号),锆石特征显示为岩浆成因,其年龄值分别为(156±2)Ma、(151±2)Ma,区域研究表明大兴安岭地区满克头鄂博组火山岩年龄峰值集中在160~150 Ma(张吉衡,2009王建国等,2013李鹏川等,2016),这2颗锆石应代表该区满克头鄂博组火山岩的年龄信息。

表 3 大兴安岭地区白音高老组火山岩年龄测定结果 Table 3 The ages of volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Da Hinggan Mountains
图 7 大兴安岭地区白音高老组火山岩年龄直方图(图中白音高老组年龄数据见表 3;①、②分别代表本文133、140 Ma火山岩所处年龄段) Fig. 7 Age probability diagram for volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in the Da Hinggan Mountains (ages of Baiyingaolao Formation after Table 3; ① and ② representing 133, 140Ma of this paper, respectively)
5.2 岩石成因与源区

研究区白音高老组火山岩具有较高的SiO2和(Na2O+K2O)含量,较低的CaO和MgO含量;FeOT/ MgO比值(平均为17.74)远高于一般Ⅰ型花岗岩(平均为2.27,Whalen et al., 1987),接近世界A型花岗岩的平均值(22.84,Whalen et al., 1987);具较高的Ga、Zr、Nb和Y含量,较低的Sr和Ba含量,10000× Ga/Al比值介于2.75~4.35(平均3.46),明显高于Ⅰ型和S型花岗岩平均值(分别为2.1和2.28),接近A型花岗岩(3.75,Whalen et al., 1987)。酸性火山岩Zr+ Nb+Ce+Y平均值为281.50×10-6,稍低于A型花岗岩,次火山岩Zr+Nb+Ce+Y平均为341.68×10-6,接近A型花岗岩的下限值(350×10-6)。白音高老组火山岩Nb/Ta平均值为11.02,高于高分异Ⅰ型花岗岩(2.3~9.9)。相对于A型花岗岩,高分异Ⅰ型花岗岩具有较低的FeOT含量(< 1.00%)和较高的Rb含量(> 270×10-6),而白音高老组火山岩具有较高的FeOT含量(平均为2.12%)和较低的Rb含量(平均为150.70×10-6),区别于高分异Ⅰ型花岗岩(Whalen et al., 1987)。据Watson et al.(1983)的公式,用岩石主要元素和Zr含量计算样品的锆石饱和温度,白音高老组次火山岩的锆石饱和温度为851~863℃,较高的成岩温度同样不支持它们为Ⅰ型(764℃;King et al., 1997)。在10000×Ga/Al−Nb和10000×Ga/Al−Zr判别图解中(图 8),所有样品点都投影于A型花岗岩区。因此,综上所述,白音高老组火山岩应为A型。

图 8 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩10000×Ga/Al−Nb图解(a)和10000×Ga/Al−Zr图解(b)(a、b,据Whalen et al., 1987) Fig. 8 Diagrams of 10000×Ga/Al−Nb (a) and 10000×Ga/Al−Zr (b)(a, b, after Whalen et al., 1987) for volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula

地球化学特征显示,白音高老组次火山岩和酸性火山岩具有一定差别。次火山岩的分异指数DI(85.23~91.57)低于酸性火山岩(94.03~96.41),但结晶温度高于酸性火山岩(分别为851~863℃和731~ 832℃)。相对于次火山岩,酸性火山岩具有更高的REE和Rb含量以及Rb/Sr比值。在Harker图解中(图略),次火山岩和酸性火山岩具一定变化趋势,显示酸性火山岩可能为次火山岩分异结晶的结果。但是,酸性火山岩和次火山岩成分上存在一定的间断,并且次火山岩具有较高的钾含量,靠近或属于碱性系列,而酸性火山岩为高钾钙碱性系列,酸性火山岩具有比次火山岩明显的Sr、Ba和Ti异常,不符合结晶分异的结果。并且,如果两者为结晶分异的关系,次火山岩(英安斑岩)的年龄应早于酸性火山岩(流纹岩),这与研究结果不符。以上说明,次火山岩和酸性火山岩应为同一岩浆房,不同期次作用的结果。由于酸性火山岩分异程度较高,经过斜长石、钾长石等矿物分离结晶,具有较高的SiO2和Rb含量以及Rb/Sr比值,较低的TiO2、FeOT、MgO和CaO含量,明显的Sr、Ba、Eu和Ti负异常以及较低的结晶温度。

白音高老组火山岩具有较低的Nb/Ta比值和Mg#值,相对富集轻稀土元素,亏损重稀土元素,大部分样品LILE富集,而Ba、Sr和HFSE亏损等特征,显示具壳源特征(Rudnick et al., 2014)。其Rb/Sr(原始地幔0.3)和Ti/Zr(地壳<20)比值与壳源岩浆近似,与幔源岩浆明显不同(Sun et al., 1989Pearce,1983),进一步说明白音高老组火山岩具有一定壳源特征。

研究区白音高老组火山岩较低的Sr/Y和(La/Yb)N比值和高的重稀土含量,表明源区熔融时残留相中缺乏石榴石(Defant et al., 1990);另外白音高老组火山岩具有较低的Sr含量,并在微量元素蛛网图上具明显的Ba和Sr的负异常,这暗示源区残留相中可能存在斜长石。石榴石具有较高的稳定压力(大于1.0~1.2 GPa),而当压力大于1.5 GPa,斜长石会变得不稳定(Sen et al., 1994),因此白音高老组火山岩形成压力较低,应为正常厚度地壳部分熔融结果。大兴安岭地区白音高老组火山岩同位素研究显示,其具有较高的火山岩εHf(t)和εNd(t)值(张玉涛等,2007Zhang et al., 2008苟军等,2010Kong et al., 2014)。大兴安岭地区经过早期大洋的俯冲及其幔源岩浆的底侵作用,形成新生地壳,由于后碰撞阶段的拉伸作用使这些新生地壳部分熔融,形成了白音高老组火山岩,白音高老组火山岩的Sr和Hf同位素特征正是源区特征的体现。所以白音高老组火山岩可能为新生镁铁质地壳部分熔融的结果。

5.3 火山岩形成的构造环境探讨

Eby(19901992)将A型花岗岩划分为A1和A2两种类型,并指出A1型花岗岩产于与上地幔热柱、裂谷作用有关的非造山环境,A2型花岗岩主要产出于与大陆边缘地壳伸展作用或与陆内剪切作用产生的拉张环境有关的后造山环境。利用Nb−Y−Ce、Nb−Y−3×Ga及Y/Nb−Rb/Nb判别图(图 9),研究区白音高老组火山岩样品基本都位于A2型花岗岩区。目前对于A型花岗岩物质来源和成因的解释有着不同的认识,比较统一的观点是其形成于伸展构造环境(Eby, 1990, 1992Frost et al., 2001Bonin,2007)。结合同时期大兴安岭地区广泛发育的双峰式岩浆作用(葛文春等,1999郭锋等,2001Wang et al., 2006裴福萍等,2008Zhang et al., 2008, 2010孟恩等,2011)、A型花岗岩(孙德有等, 2004, 2005Wang et al., 2006隋振民等,2007施璐等,2013李竞妍等,2014吴涛涛等,2016)和变质核杂岩(张履桥等,1998Liu et al., 2006, 刘俊来等, 2008, 2011林伟等,2013),进一步证实大兴安岭地区在早白垩世处于伸展构造背景。但对于这种伸展构造体制是后碰撞阶段(蒙古—鄂霍茨克构造体系),还是俯冲阶段弧后环境(环太平洋构造体系)或者是板内体系还存在较大的争论。

图 9 罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩构造环境图解(据Eby,1992) Fig. 9 Tectonic discrimination diagrams for volcanic rocks of Baiyingaolao Formation in Hanwula (after Eby, 1992)

研究显示,大兴安岭地区发育S型花岗岩(170 Ma左右)(李宇等,2015)、具埃达克质特征的岩浆岩(164~140 Ma)(高晓峰等,2005武广等,2008何付兵等,2013黄凡等,2014),结合辽西地区晚侏罗世—早白垩世自北向南推覆事件的存在(张长厚等,2002赵越等,2004张宏等,2008孟恩等,2011),证明在中侏罗世—早白垩世大兴安岭地区存在地壳加厚事件(赵越等,1994),由于加厚陆壳的不稳定性,导致造山后的伸展环境或加厚陆壳的拆沉作用。所以西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩可能与蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋闭合碰撞后的伸展环境相关。从整个东北地区中生代火山的时空分布来看,目前在松辽盆地以东地区尚未发现160~138 Ma的火山岩,而早白垩世晚期(133~106 Ma)火山岩在大兴安岭、吉黑东部及松辽盆地底部断陷层广泛分布(Wang et al., 2006Zhang et al., 2008, 2010孟恩等,2011徐美君等,2011许文良等,2013b),且显示出由东部陆缘向西部陆内,火山岩中的碱性组分具有增高的成分极性变化,在靠近陆内一侧的松辽盆地和大兴安岭地区则显示双峰式火山岩组合的特征,表明了早白垩世晚期受到了东部板块俯冲作用的影响(郭锋等,2001Wang et al., 2006Zhang et al., 2008, 2010孟恩等,2011许文良等,2013b)。中国东部在早白垩世广泛出露变质核杂岩、断陷盆地和拆离构造,例如:呼和浩特、达子营和万福等变质核杂岩(关会梅等,2008申亮等,2011);松辽、大杨树和孙吴等断陷盆地(杨建国等,2006),这些伸展构造具有近似的伸展方向(NW-SE),变质核杂岩的形成时代主体介于130~110 Ma(刘俊来等,2011林伟等,2013),也印证了位于太平洋西岸的欧亚大陆东缘在早白垩世具伸展性质的构造背景(林伟等,2013)。以上研究表明,古太平洋板块俯冲作用对中国东部早白垩世晚期火山岩具有一定影响。结合本文白音高老组火山岩球粒流纹岩和英安斑岩的形成时代分别为(140±0.8)Ma和(133±0.7)Ma,所以流纹岩的形成可能主要受控于蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋俯冲/碰撞后的后造山伸展垮塌作用,英安斑岩为后期古太平洋俯冲和蒙古—鄂霍茨克后碰撞阶段共同作用的结果。

6 结论

(1)内蒙古西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组球粒流纹岩的形成时代为(140±0.8)Ma,英安斑岩的形成时代为(133±0.7)Ma,整体形成于早白垩世早期。

(2)白音高老组火山岩具A型花岗岩地球化学特征,为地壳部分熔融的结果。

(3)西乌旗罕乌拉地区白音高老组火山岩形成于伸展构造环境,为蒙古—鄂霍茨克构造体系和环太平洋构造体系共同作用的结果,流纹岩主要受控于蒙古—鄂霍茨克洋俯冲/碰撞后的后造山伸展垮塌作用,英安斑岩为后期古太平洋俯冲和蒙古—鄂霍茨克后碰撞阶段共同叠加作用的结果。

致谢:感谢项目组成员在野外和室内整理工作中的大力支持,论文撰写过程中,中国石化石油勘探开发研究院冯建赟博士提出了宝贵意见,审稿专家对本文提出了修改意见,在此一并致以衷心的感谢。

注释

❶内蒙古自治区地质局区域地质测量队.1976.罕乌拉幅(L-30-29)1:20万区域地质调查报告.

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