文章快速检索    
 
  中国地质 2020, Vol. 47 Issue (4): 1204-1219  
0
引用本文
郝增元, 高鉴, 王晨, 刘旭东, 李得成, 王新亮. 2020. 北山造山带风雷山地区二长花岗岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及其构造背景[J]. 中国地质, 47(4): 1204-1219.  
Hao Zengyuan, Gao Jian, Wang Chen, Liu Xudong, Li Decheng, Wang Xinliang. 2020. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and tectonic setting of the monzogranites in the Fengleishan area of Beishan orogenic belt, Inner Mongolia[J]. Geology in China, 47(4): 1204-1219. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

北山造山带风雷山地区二长花岗岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及其构造背景
郝增元1, 高鉴2, 王晨1, 刘旭东3, 李得成1, 王新亮2    
1. 西安地质矿产勘查开发院, 陕西 西安 710010;
2. 内蒙古地质矿产勘查院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010010;
3. 陕西地矿物化探队, 陕西 西安 710010
摘要:风雷山二长花岗岩位于北山北部的红石山—百合山—蓬勃山与芨芨台子—小黄山两条蛇绿混杂岩带之间,构造位置特殊。二长花岗岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄加权平均值为(320±1)Ma,代表了其成岩年龄。岩石具有富SiO2、Al2O3的特征,里特曼指数(σ)为1.58~2.74(< 3.3),碱度率(AR)为2.35~4.05,属于钙碱性花岗岩类,A/NCK=0.92~1.15,显示出偏铝质、过铝质岩浆的特征。稀土元素总量(ΣREE)较高,稀土配分模式呈轻稀土富集的右倾型[(La/Yb)N=4.60~8.83],轻稀土分异程度大于重稀土,所有样品均具有Eu负异常(δEu=0.56~0.88,平均为0.72);强烈富集强不相容元素Th、U和大离子亲石元素Rb、K,亏损高场强元素Nb、Ta、Ti、P。曲线形态与上地壳的相似,表明岩浆作用过程有上地壳物质的参与。高的Th含量(8.58~21.62 μg/g)及低的Nb/Ta值(8.75~15.72)指示岩浆源区主要为地壳。在Rb-(Nb+Y)及R1-R2等构造判别图解中样品大多数落入板块碰撞前火山弧花岗岩区,根据岩石共生组合特征,认为风雷山地区二长花岗岩为碰撞前陆缘弧岩浆作用的产物,与红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限洋的洋壳俯冲作用有关。结合区域地质背景,推测红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限大洋的闭合时间应晚于晚石炭世早期。
关键词北山造山带    锆石U-Pb年龄    地球化学    活动大陆边缘弧    地质调查工程    风雷山    内蒙古    
中图分类号:P588.12+1;P597            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2020)04-1204-16
LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and tectonic setting of the monzogranites in the Fengleishan area of Beishan orogenic belt, Inner Mongolia
HAO Zengyuan1, GAO Jian2, WANG Chen1, LIU Xudong3, LI Decheng1, WANG Xinliang2    
1. Xi'an Institute of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, Xi'an 710100, Shaanxi, China;
2. Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration, Hohhot 010010, Inner Mongolia, China;
3. Shaanxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Xi'an 710100, Shaanxi, China
Abstract: Monzogranites in Fengleishan are located in northern Beishan and situated between two ophiolitic mélange belts of Hongshishan-Baiheshan-Pengboshan and Jijitaizi-Xiaohuangshan, having a special tectonic affinity. Zircons from the monzogranites yielded a weighted mean LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of (320±1) Ma, representing the intrusion age. The samples are characterized by high content of SiO2 and Al2O3 with Rittmann indexes of 1.58-2.74 (< 3.3) and alkaline ratios of 2.35-4.05, belonging to calc-alkaline granitoids. Their A/NCK values range from 0.92 to 1.15 and display metaaluminous to peraalmuinous affinities. They have relatively high content of total REE and are characterized by LREE-enriched patterns ((La/Yb)N=4.60-8.83)and negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.56-0.88, 0.72 in average). They also show strong enrichment of incompatible elements (e.g., Th and U) and large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb and K) but depletion of high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti and P). Their normalized patterns are similar to those of upper continental crust (UPC), indicating participation of materials from the UPC in their magma source. High values of Th (8.58-21.62 μg/g) and low ratios of Nb/Ta (8.75-15.72) point to a crust-dominated magma source. On the tectonic discriminant diagrams of Rb-(Nb+Y) and R1-R2, most of the samples are plotted in the pre-collisional volcanic arc granite area. Based on associated lithological characteristics, it is proposed that monzogranites in the Fengleishan were formed by pre-collisional volcanic arc magmatism, which was related to oceanic crust subduction in the Hongshishan-Baiheshan-Pengboshan belt. Combined with regional geological background, it is inferred that the closure of the small ocean in the Hongshishan-Baiheshan-Pengboshan belt should postdate the early period of late Carboniferous.
Key words: Beishan orogenic belt    zircon U-Pb age    geochemistry    active continental margin    geological survey engineering    Fengleishan    Inner Mongolia    

1 引言

北山造山带作为中亚造山带的重要组成部分,位于西伯利亚板块、塔里木板块和华北板块交汇处的关键位置(图 1a),属中亚造山带的中南缘,总体属古亚洲构造域的一部分,是近年来研究热点和焦点之一(李锦轶等, 2006a, b, cWindley et al., 2007肖文交等, 2006, 2008Xiao et al., 2009, 2010李舢,2009李小菲,2013)。北山造山带发育复杂而又独特的中亚型构造,大地构造格局具有盆山耦合、多块体多缝合带镶嵌的特征(肖序常等, 1991, 1992王国强,2015),经历了多次“开”、“合”的构造演化历史(王玉往等,1997)。由于其地质演化过程漫长,地质构造极其复杂,对北山古生代洋陆转化时限及古生代构造格局的探讨是该区研究的热点。左国朝等(左国朝等, 1990a, 2003杜玉良等,2009)认为该区古生代石板井—小黄山洋盆开启于早寒武世中期或更早的震旦纪,最终闭合于志留纪末—泥盆纪,晚古生代全区总体处于板内的开合构造活动时期,将明水—石板井—小黄山蛇绿混杂岩带作为北山地区旱山微板块与塔里木板块东端北缘的缝合带(左国朝等,1990a李锦春等,1996)、哈萨克斯坦板块与塔里木板块的缝合带(左国朝等,2003郑荣国等,2012);何世平等认为红柳河—牛圈子—洗肠井(图 1b)洋盆开启于寒武纪—早奥陶纪而闭合于志留纪末,红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限大洋开启于早石炭世而结束于石炭纪末,认为晚古生代红石山—百合山—蓬勃山大洋双向俯冲,为哈萨克斯坦板块与塔里木板块最终的板块缝合带(何世平等, 2002, 2004, 2005龚全胜等,2003);而另一种观点则认为洋盆闭合于二叠纪(聂凤军等,2002a江思宏等,2003苗来成等,2014)。刘雪亚等将红石山—黑鹰山—六驼山深大断裂作为晚古生代西伯利亚板块与哈萨克斯坦板块的分界,而将柳园—大奇山深大断裂作为晚古生代哈萨克斯坦板块与塔里木板块的分界(张新虎,1993刘雪亚等,1995聂凤军等, 2002b, 2004江思宏,2006);杨合群等以红柳河—牛圈子—洗肠井蛇绿混杂岩带代表早古生代最终板块缝合带,将北山地区北带划归哈萨克斯坦板块、南带划归塔里木板块,晚古生代为陆内裂谷演化时期(任秉琛等,2001杨合群等, 2008, 2009, 2010徐学义等,2008);而谢春林等则认为代表古亚洲洋南缘消减带的实际位置应在雀儿山—英安山一线以北的蒙古境内,而北山岛弧带实属南侧东天山古陆陆缘增生地体的一部分(谢春林等,2009),古亚洲洋的闭合与增生造山时间发生在中泥盆世与早石炭世之间(卢进才等,2013)。最新的一种观点认为古生代时期整个北山地区属于古亚洲洋中的弧增生系统的组成部分(Xiao et al., 2010),划分为北部的北山弧盆系、南部的敦煌陆块北缘(潘桂棠等,2009)。显然,这些观点有着明显的差异,这也意味着北山地区古生代构造演化及构造单元划分均存在明显的争议。

图 1 风雷山地区地质简图(a据王国强,2015;b据杨合群等,2010) 1—中新生界;2—上石炭统火山岩;3—绿条山组二段;4—绿条山组一段;5—北山岩群;6—二叠纪正长花岗岩;7—早二叠世似斑状二长花岗岩;8—早二叠世英云闪长岩;9—晚石炭世正长花岗岩;10—晚石炭世二长花岗岩;11—晚石炭世石英闪长岩;12—早石炭世黑云花岗闪长岩;13—晚泥盆世英云闪长岩;14—早泥盆世二长花岗岩;15—早志留世黑云石英闪长岩;16—闪长玢岩/闪长岩脉;17—二长花岗岩/花岗岩脉;18—断层;19—糜棱岩化带;20—板块俯冲带;21—板块缝合带;22—北山造山带位置;23—蛇绿岩带;24—研究区;25-采样点位 Fig. 1 Geological sketch map of the Fengleishan area(a after Wang Guoqiang, 2015; b after Yang Hequn et al., 2010) 1-Mesozoic-Cenozoic; 2-Upper Carboniferous volcanic rock; 3-The second member of Lütiaoshan Formation; 4-The first member of Lütiaoshan Formation; 5-Beishan Group complex; 6-Permian syenogranite; 7-Early Permian porphyritic monzogranite; 8-Early Permian tonalite; 9-Late Carboniferous syenogranite; 10-Late Carboniferous monzogranite; 11-Late Carboniferous quartz diorite; 12-Early Carboniferous biotite granodiorite; 13-Late Devonian tonalite; 14-Early Devonian monzogranite; 15-Early Silurian biotite quartz diorite; 16-Diorite porphyrite vein and diorite vein; 17-Monzogranite vein and granite vein; 18-Fault; 19-Mylonitization zone; 20-Subduction zone; 21-Suture; 22-Beishan orogenic belt location; 23-Ophiolite; 24-Research area; 25-Sampling location

古生代是北山地区不同洋盆和陆块形成演化的重要时期,伴随着弧陆拼贴碰撞和大陆增生,该区古生代期间发生了多期次岩浆作用,其中以花岗岩类分布尤为广泛。北山地区花岗岩类总出露面积约30000 km2,占整个北山地区面积的30%,其侵位时间可以从前寒武纪一直延续到中生代,其中以华力西期,尤其是华力西晚期的花岗岩类分布最为广泛(甘肃省地质矿产局,1989内蒙古自治区地质矿产局,1991江思宏等,2006聂凤军等,2006杜玉良等,2009;)。左国朝等(1990b)将北山地区发育的花岗岩类自北向南划分为3个带:北带指明水—石板井一线以北、中蒙边界以南的区域,花岗岩类约占该区总面积的28%;中带为白云山—东七一山一带,岩性主要是英云闪长岩及花岗闪长岩;南带指南起疏勒河,北达马鬃山—横峦山隆起带以南的狭长地带,该带内花岗岩类分布广泛,构成北山地区两大花岗岩带之一。近年来,在公婆泉一带、雀儿山一带及狼娃山—黑鹰山一带取得的花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄、Ar-Ar、K-Ar和Rb-Sr年龄将古生代花岗岩类大致划分为两个阶段:早—中古生代、晚古生代(李小菲,2013李舢,2013)。但仍需要精确的锆石U-Pb定年资料支撑及构造背景研究。本文通过对风雷山地区二长花岗岩的岩石学、锆石U-Pb年代学及地球化学等系统研究,分析其成因,探讨其形成的构造背景,以期为北山北部晚古生代区域大地构造演化提供新的约束。

2 区域地质概况

风雷山地区地处红石山—百合山—蓬勃山与芨芨台子—小黄山两条蛇绿混杂岩带之间,旱山地块中北部(左国朝等,2003杨剑洲,2019)。研究区内构造以近EW向或NWW向的一系列逆断层为主,后期叠加了NE向的次一级断裂。区内前寒武纪变质基底主要由经受了中—低级变质作用的古元古界北山岩群组成(图 1c),其构造样式复杂,经历了多期变质、变形作用的改造,主要表现为近水平顺层剪切作用下形成的片理、石香肠构造等,记录了北山地区早期地壳形成演化的历史(内蒙古自治区地质矿产局,1996甘肃省地质矿产局,1997)。古生代时期,研究区所在北山地区在前寒武纪统一古陆基础上,先后经历了两期板块构造体制下的“开”(裂解)“合”(俯冲—碰撞造山)作用(何世平等, 2002, 2005),然而地层记录在本区保留甚少,其中早古生代地层在区内未见出露,而晚古生代地层也仅限于分布在本区北部的下石炭统绿条山组碎屑岩及上石炭统白山组中酸性火山岩。中新生代以来,风雷山地区主要以断陷作用为主,形成了白垩纪至新近纪的沉积盆地,孕育了赤金堡组、苦泉组及第四系沉积。区内岩浆活动强烈,侵入岩分布广,侵入期次多,时限由志留纪岩浆侵入开始至二叠纪岩浆侵入结束,出露岩性主要有石英闪长岩、英云闪长岩、花岗闪长岩、二长花岗岩及正长花岗岩等。风雷山二长花岗岩呈北西西向展布,与区域构造线走向一致,呈岩株状产出,侵入早石炭世花岗岩及上石炭统白山组火山岩,被中新生代地层覆盖。

3 岩石学特征

风雷山二长花岗岩岩体出露于风雷山北、风雷山南及公路井等地,总体呈北西西向带状展布,侵入早石炭世花岗闪长岩、上石炭统白山组、晚石炭世石英闪长岩等,被晚石炭世正长花岗岩侵入,局部可见闪长质暗色包体。岩石具中细粒花岗结构,块状构造(图 2)。岩石中斜长石多呈1~3.5 mm半自形板状—半自形粒状,普遍绢云母化;钾长石多数为1~4.5 mm半自形粒状,为微斜长石、微斜条纹长石;石英呈0.5~3.5 mm他形粒状;黑云母呈0.3~1 mm鳞片状,多数绿泥石化。斜长石(绢云母化)含量25%~35%,钾长石为25%~45%,石英为20%~27%,黑云母小于5%,局部含少量角闪石,磁铁矿少量,磷灰石微量。

图 2 北山风雷山二长花岗岩野外露头及显微(正交偏光)照片 Kf-钾长石;Pl-斜长石;Q-石英;Bi-黑云母;Am-角闪石 Fig. 2 Photographs of monzogranites in Fengleishan, Beishan(crossed nicols) Kf-K-feldspar; Pl-Plagioklase; Q-Quartz; Bi-Biotite; Am-Amphibole
4 样品分析测试

本次在二长花岗岩岩体的不同部位共采集了9件新鲜岩石样品进行岩石地球化学分析(图 1c),选取其中的1件样品(TW6104)进行锆石U-Pb测年。主量元素、微量及稀土元素的测定均由河北省区域地质矿产调查研究所实验室完成。主量元素采用X射线荧光光谱仪(Axiosmax)测定,微量及稀土元素采用等离子体质谱仪(X-serise2)测定,元素含量精度优于5%。

LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb测年样品的锆石挑选由河北省区域地质矿产调查研究所实验室完成。经机械粉碎至80~100目,用浮选、电磁选方法进行分离,然后在双目镜下挑选出晶形和透明度较好的锆石颗粒用于年龄测定。锆石制靶及阴极发光(CL)图像拍照在北京锆年领航科技有限公司进行,将完整的锆石单矿物用无色透明的环氧树脂固定,待环氧树脂充分固结后抛磨,使锆石内部充分暴露,然后进行锆石的反射光、投射光及阴极发光(CL)照相。LA-ICP-MS锆石微区原位单点定年在天津地质调查中心实验室完成,使用仪器为Neptune多接收电感耦合等离子体质谱仪和193 nm激光取样系统(LA-MC-ICP-MS)。激光束斑直径为35 μm,能量密度为13~14 J/cm2,频率为8~10 Hz。实验室采用He作为激光剥蚀物质的载气,利用动态变焦扩大色散使质量数相差很大的U-Pb同位素可以同时接收从而进行U-Pb同位素测定,锆石标样采用TEMORA标准锆石。数据处理采用中国地质大学Liu et al.(2008)编写的ICPMSDataCal程序,加权平均年龄计算及谐和图的绘制采用ISPLOT(ver3.0)程序(Ludwig,2001)。采用208Pb对普通铅进行校正,利用NIST 612玻璃标样作为外标计算锆石样品的Pb、U、Th含量。具体测试方法与详细分析步骤见文献(李怀坤等,2009),采用206Pb/238U年龄的加权平均值作为岩体的结晶年龄,同位素比值和年龄误差1σ,可信度95%。

5 同位素年代学

本次工作的二长花岗岩采自风雷山北,地理坐标:东经99°05′59″,北纬41°57′45″。对其锆石进行了25个点的测试,分析结果见表 1。所测锆石呈无色,长柱状,锆石粒径多为150~200 μm,长宽比多为2:1~3:1。在阴极发光CL图像(图 3)上,显示出锆石内部具典型的明暗相间的振荡环带结构,表明其属于岩浆结晶的产物(吴元保等,2004)。25个点的测试结果显示锆石的Th、U含量分别为78×10-6~432×10-6(平均值207×10-6)和107×10-6~458×10-6(平均值270×10-6),Th/U为0.52~1.22,均大于0.5,也说明了锆石属于典型岩浆成因(李志昌等,2004)。在锆石U-Pb年龄206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U谐和图(图 4)中,分析数据均分布在谐和线上,206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为(320±1)Ma(MSWD=0.13),属于晚石炭世早期,代表了该岩体的侵位年龄。

表 1 北山风雷山二长花岗岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb同位素测年数据 Table 1 LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic data of monzogranites in Fengleishan, Beishan
图 3 北山风雷山二长花岗岩(TW6104)中锆石的阴极发光图 Fig. 3 CL images of representative zircons of monzogranites(TW6104) in Fengleishan, Beishan
图 4 北山风雷山二长花岗岩锆石U-Pb同位素谐和图 Fig. 4 U-Pb isotopic concordia diagram for zircons of monzogranites in Fengleishan, Beishan
6 地球化学特征 6.1 主量元素

岩石SiO2含量为65.90%~75.98%,属于中酸性岩、酸性岩类。Al2O3含量较高,为12.50%~14.85%,具有富硅、铝的特征(表 2)。TiO2含量较低,为0.21%~0.61%。Na2O+K2O含量高,为6.75%~9.05%,K2O/Na2O值为0.65%~1.58,体现出岩石中钾长石、斜长石含量的变化。岩石里特曼指数(σ)为1.58~2.74(< 3.3),碱度率(AR)为2.35~4.05,属于钙碱性花岗岩类,在SiO2-(Na2O+K2O)图解(图略)中样品落入亚碱性系列区,在AFM图解(图 5a)中样品呈现钙-碱性系列岩石的演化趋势,在SiO2-K2O图解中(图略)大部分样品落入高钾钙碱性系列区域。A/NCK=0.92~1.15(> 1),A/NK=1.13~1.49(> 1),显示出偏铝质、过铝质岩浆的特征,在A/NCK-A/NK图(图 5b)中样品也分布于准铝质和过铝质区。分异指数(DI)为76.44~94.69,固结指数(SI)为2.18~13.02,反映岩浆分异程度较强;长英指数(FL)为70.25~95.44,镁铁指数(MF)为70.89~85.90,揭示岩浆分离结晶作用较强。指数变化范围较大,体现出岩浆演化的不均一性。

表 2 北山风雷山二长花岗岩主量元素(%)和微量元素(10-6)组成 Table 2 Major(%) and trace elements(10-6) content of monzogranites in Fengleishan, Beishan
6.2 稀土元素与微量元素

从稀土分析结果表(表 2)中可以看出二长花岗岩稀土总量(ΣREE)较高(平均为126.35×10-6),变化范围较大(86.29×10-6~158.50×10-6),轻稀土总量(LREE平均为115.31×10-6)明显高于重稀土(HREE平均为11.05×10-6)。在球粒陨石标准化稀土配分图中(图 6a),曲线呈右倾型,LREE/HREE变化于8.61~13.29,平均为10.79,(La/Yb)N变化于4.60~8.83,平均为6.91,说明轻重稀土分馏较为明显。(La/Sm)N变化于3.12~5.51,平均为4.11;(Gd/Yb)N变化于0.97~1.33,平均为1.15,表现出轻稀土分馏程度大于重稀土。所有样品的Eu负异常明显(δEu为0.56~0.88,平均为0.72),表明可能发生了斜长石的分离结晶作用(Hugh,2000)。曲线形态基本平行于上地壳曲线,表明源岩物质有上地壳物质。

图 6 北山风雷山二长花岗岩的稀土元素球粒陨石标准化配分型式(a)和微量元素原始地幔蛛标准化蛛网图(b)(据Sun and McDonough, 1989) Fig. 6 Chondrite-normalized REE patterns(a) and primitive mantle normalized trace elements spider diagram(b) of monzogranites in Fengleishan, Beishan(after Sun and McDonough, 1989)

从微量元素分析结果(表 2)及微量元素原始地幔标准化的蛛网图(图 6b)可以看出:岩石强烈富集了强不相容元素Th、U和大离子亲石元素Rb、K,相对亏损高场强元素Nb、Ta、P、Ti,呈现Rb、Th峰和Nb、Ta谷,可能为地幔物质部分熔融形成,但Nb、Ta、Ti的亏损,表明了二长花岗岩源岩物质与地壳密切相关(李再会等,2012)。曲线形态与上地壳的相似,也表明岩浆作用过程有上地壳物质的参与。曲线形态与Pearce et al.(1984)建立的用于花岗岩构造环境判别的微量元素图解中的火山弧型钙碱性系列相似,暗示岩浆活动与火山弧环境有关(Hugh,2000)。

7 讨论 7.1 岩浆侵位时代、成因及构造环境

本文对风雷山地区二长岩花岗岩锆石U-Pb定年获得206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为(320±1)Ma,可以与同区域同时期形成的交叉沟石英闪长岩(306.3±1.2Ma)(赵志雄等,2015)进行对比,同为红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限洋南缘狼娃山—黑鹰山岩浆岩带华力西中期侵入岩的一员。因此,本文所测年龄数据可信,代表了岩浆结晶侵位年龄,岩体形成时代属于晚石炭世。

二长花岗岩矿物组合为斜长石、钾长石、石英及黑云母等,角闪石局部可见,有少量闪长质暗色包体发育。岩石地球化学特征显示出富SiO2、Al2O3,富碱的特征,Rb/Sr比值高(0.26~2.10),平均为0.73,说明其分异程度较高,在(Na2O+K2O)/CaO-(Zr+Nb+Ce+Y)图(图 7a)中4个样品落入分异花岗岩区,5个样品落入非分异花岗岩区。A/CNK=0.92~1.15,显示出偏铝质、过铝质高钾钙碱性岩浆的特征。对于I型、S型的划分,早期研究提出的铝饱和指数A/NCK=1.1作为两者的分界值,但这一指标仅适用于未经强烈结晶分异的花岗岩。P2O5在弱过铝质和强过铝质岩浆中随SiO2增加变化趋势不同,这种性质被成功地用于区分I型和S型花岗岩类。在SiO2-P2O5图解(图 7b)上,数据点总体沿I型演化趋势分布,即P2O5与SiO2含量呈负相关关系(Chappell et al., 1992)。所有样品中均未见S型花岗岩所特有的富铝特征矿物白云母、堇青石、石榴子石及电气石等,同样说明不具备S型花岗岩的特征,应为I型花岗岩。

图 7 (Na2O+K2O)/CaO-(Zr+Nb+Ce)+Y图(据Whalen et al., 1987)及SiO2-P2O5图解(据Chappell and White, 1992) Fig. 7 (Na2O+K2O)/CaO-(Zr+Nb+Ce)+Y(after Whalen et al., 1987) and SiO2-P2O5 diagrams(after Chappell and White, 1992)

地幔中Th的丰度仅为0.05 μg/g(Sun,1980),而地壳(尤其是花岗岩)中的Th含量高达16~21 μg/g(Pitcher et al., 1985),风雷山地区二长花岗岩的Th含量为8.58~21.62 μg/g,平均为14.92 μg/g,远高于地幔丰度均值而更接近于地壳。李昌年(1992)认为Nb的负异常能反映花岗岩具有大陆壳的特征,风雷山地区二长花岗岩的Nb/Ta值为8.75~15.72,均值为11.54,远低于地幔平均值60,而更接近地壳平均值11(Green et al., 1987)。且二长花岗岩的稀土元素球粒陨石标准化配分型式和微量元素原始地幔蛛标准化蛛网曲线形态与上地壳的相似,也表明岩浆作用过程有上地壳物质的参与,综合表明岩浆源区主要为地壳(丁坤等,2020)。

构造运动控制着岩浆活动,而岩浆活动是构造运动的一种表现形式,不同的岩石组合、岩石成分及特征微量元素组合特点对构造环境有着明显的指示作用(赵振华,2007)。风雷山地区二长花岗岩明显富集了强不相容元素Th、U和大离子亲石元素Rb、K,而强烈亏损高场强元素Nb、Ta、Ti、P,具有明显的Eu负异常,曲线均呈现右倾型,具有火山弧花岗岩的特征(吕达鑫等,2018杨延乾等,2018)。而二长花岗岩在Rb-Nb+Y图解(图 8a)中也落入火山弧花岗岩区,在R1-R2图解(图 8b)中主要落入板块碰撞前区域(Hugh,2000张旗等,2008邓晋福等,2015b)。有学者认为I型花岗岩类与岛弧和活动大陆边缘有关(王德滋等,1999),李昌年认为大陆弧背景下造山花岗岩均具有P、Ti等元素的亏损,而Nb的负异常更能反映花岗岩具有大陆壳的特征(李昌年,1992刘明强等,2018)。风雷山地区与二长花岗岩在时空上共生的岩浆岩多为钙碱性花岗岩及低镁的钙碱性火山岩(贾元琴等,2016),花岗岩类具有TTG岩类的特征,说明该地区晚古生代存在洋壳俯冲环境(冯艳芳等,2011),而这一岩石共生组合特征也符合活动大陆边缘的岩石组合类型(路凤香等,2002邓晋福等,2007),且为活动大陆边缘弧靠内陆一侧的火成岩弧的内带的标志性火成岩组合,说明了风雷山地区晚古生代花岗岩的构造环境为活动大陆边缘弧环境(邓晋福等, 2007, 2015a袁四化等,2009)。根据上述特征,结合区域构造演化,认为风雷山地区二长花岗岩为碰撞前陆缘弧岩浆作用的产物,与红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限洋的洋壳俯冲作用有关。

图 8 北山风雷山二长花岗岩的构造环境判别图解(据Pearce et al., 1984; Batchelor and Bowden, 1985) Fig. 8 Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams of monzogranites in Fengleishan, Beishan(after Pearce et al., 1984; Batchelor and Bowden, 1985)
7.2 构造意义

古生代时期,北山地区在前寒武纪统一古陆基础上,先后经历了两期板块构造体制下的“开”(裂解)“合”(俯冲—碰撞造山)作用(何世平等, 2002, 2005),其中:第一期板块构造体制下的开合主要出现在早古生代早期,北山地区沿红柳河—牛圈子—洗肠井一带裂解形成洋盆,晚奥陶世—志留纪发生由南向北俯冲,志留纪末大洋封闭,泥盆纪以碰撞造山作用为主(左国朝等,2003)。第二期开合旋回出现在晚古生代中期,这一时期北山地区经过泥盆纪碰撞造山作用后重新形成的统一大陆沿研究区以北的红石山—百合山—蓬勃山一带发生裂解,再度形成洋盆,可能由于扩张时间较短,洋盆扩张宽度不大,属“有限大洋”(何世平等,2005)或“红海型”海槽,即裂谷强烈拉张向初始小洋盆过渡(杨合群等,2010)。之后,洋壳在不断扩张的同时向南、向北发生双向俯冲,进而闭合(何世平等, 2002, 2005牛文超等,2019)。在此期间出现了强烈的中酸性火山活动,形成了以白山组(C2b)为代表的喷出岩,同时伴随有华力西中期大量中酸性岩浆岩的侵入(郝增元,2018)。风雷山地区二长花岗岩即为该期侵入岩的重要组成单元,其构造背景为碰撞前陆缘弧,证实了风雷山地区该时期的构造环境,侵位时代为(320±1)Ma,有效地限制了红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限洋盆的闭合时限,即该有限洋盆的消解碰撞时间晚于(320±1)Ma。这一认识为北山北部地区晚古生代的构造演化研究提供了新的资料。

8 结论

基于对北山风雷山地区二长花岗岩的岩石学、岩石地球化学及锆石U-Pb年代学特征的系统研究,初步得出如下结论:

(1) 锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年代学表明,风雷山地区二长花岗岩锆石206Pb/238U的年龄加权平均值为(320±1)Ma,代表岩体的成岩年龄,属于晚石炭世早期。

(2) 主量元素富SiO2、Al2O3及碱含量较高,稀土元素配分模式呈现轻稀土富集的右倾海鸥型,具有较为明显的负Eu异常,强烈富集大离子亲石元素Rb、Th、U、K,相对亏损高场强元素Nb、Ta、Ti、P,加之矿物组成,共同表明风雷山二长花岗岩为偏铝质、过铝质高钾钙碱性I型花岗岩。岩浆源区主要为地壳。

(3) 北山风雷山地区二长花岗岩形成于活动大陆边缘构造环境,与洋壳的俯冲、消减有关,推测红石山—百合山—蓬勃山有限大洋的闭合时间应晚于晚石炭世早期。

致谢: 成文过程中,内蒙古地质矿产勘查院赵志雄高级工程师给予了很大的帮助;锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb测年得到了天津地质矿产研究所周红英教授的帮助;匿名审稿人、编辑给予了细致入微的评审,并提出了宝贵的修改意见和建议,在此一并表示衷心的感谢!

参考文献
Batchelor R A, Bowden P. 1985. Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters[J]. Chemical Geology, 48(1): 43-55.
Bureau Geology and Mineral Resources of Gansu Province. 1989. Regional Geology of Gansu Province[M]. Beijing: Geological Publish House (in Chinese).
Bureau Geology and Mineral Resources of Gansu province. 1997. Stratigraphy (Lithostratic) of Gansu Province[M]. Beijing: China University of Geosciences Press (in Chinese).
Bureau Geology and Mineral Resources of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. 1991. Regional geology of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region[M]. Beijing: Geological Publish House (in Chinese).
Bureau Geology and Mineral Resources of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. 1996. Lithostratic of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region[M]. Beijing: China University of Geosciences Press (in Chinese).
Chappell B W, White A J R. 1992. I and S-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt. Transactions of the RoyalSociety of Edinburgh[J]. Earth Sciences, 83: 1-26.
Deng Jinfu, Xiao Qinghui, Su Shangguo, Liu Cui, Zhao Guochun, Wu Zongxu, Liu Yong. 2007. Igneous petrotectonic assemblages and tectonic settings:Discussion[J]. Geological Journal of China Universities, 13(3): 392-402 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Deng Jinfu, Feng Yanfang, Di Yongjun, Liu Cui, Xiao Qinghui, Su Shangguo, Zhao Guochun, Meng Fei, Ma Shuai, Yao Tu. 2015a. Magmatic arc and Ocean-Continent Transition:discussion[J]. Geological Review, 61(3): 473-484 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Deng Jinfu, Liu Cui, Feng Yanfang, Xiao Qinghui, Di Yongjun, Su Shangguo, Zhao Guochun, Duan Peixin, Dai Meng. 2015b. On the correct application in the common igneous petrological diagrams:discussion and suggestion[J]. Geological Review, 61(4): 717-734 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Ding Kun, Liang Ting, Zhou Yi, Feng Yonggang, Zhang Ze, Ding Liang, Li Kan. 2020. Petrogenesis of Dahongliutan Biotite Monzogranite in Western Kunlun Orogen:Evidence from Zircon U-Pb Age and Li-Hf Isotope[J]. Northwestern Geology, 53(1): 24-34 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Du Yuliang, Yin Xianming, Feng Zhihan, Yin Yong. 2009. Mesozoic structural-magmatic activites and mineralization in Beishan Region[J]. Northwestern Geology, 42(2): 48-54 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Feng Yanfang, Deng Jinfu, Xiao Qinghui, Xing Guangfu, Su Shangguo, Cui Xianyue, Gong Fanying. 2011. Recognizing the TTG rock types:discussion and suggestion[J]. Geological Journal of China Universities, 17(3): 406-414 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Gong Quansheng, Liu Mingqiang, Liang Minghong, Li Hailin. 2003. The tectonic facies and tectonic evolution of Beishan orogenic belt, Gansu[J]. Northwestern Geology, 36(1): 11-17 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Green T H, Pearson N J. 1987. Anexperimental study of Nb and Ta partitioning between Ti-rich minerals and silicate liquids at high pressure and temperature[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(1): 55-62.
Hao Zengyuan. 2018. The Characteristics and Tectonic Implications of Late Paleozoic Granitoids of the Fengleishan Region in Northern Beishan, China[D]. Beijing: China University of Geosciences (Beijing) (in Chinese with English abstract).
He Shiping, Ren Bingchen, Yao Wenguang, Fu Lipu. 2002. The division of tectonic units of Beishan area, Gansu-Inner Mongolia[J]. Northwestern Geology, 35(4): 30-40 (in Chinese with English abstract).
He Shiping, Zhou Huiwu, Yao Wenguang, Ren Bingchen, Fu Lipu. 2004. Discovery and significance of Radiolaria from middle Devonian conglomerate in Beishan area, Gansu[J]. Northwestern Geology, 37(3): 24-29 (in Chinese with English abstract).
He Shiping, Zhou Huiwu, Ren Bingchen, Yao Wenguang, Fu Lipu. 2005. Crustal evolution of Palaeozic in Beishan area, Gansu and Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Northwestern Geology, 38(3): 6-15 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Hugh R R. 2002. Petrological Geochemistry[M]. Yang Xueming, Yang Xiaoyong, Chen Shuangxi. Hefei: Press of University of Science and Technology of China, 106-117, 155-160.
Irvine T N, Barager W R A. 1971. A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks[J]. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8: 523-548.
Jia Yuanqin, Zhao Zhixiong, Xu Hai, Wang Xinliang, Liu Qiang, Wang Jinrong. 2016. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and tectonic setting of rhyolites from Beishan formation in Fengleishan area of the Beishan orogenic belt[J]. Geology in China, 43(1): 91-98 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Jiang Sihong, Nie Fengjun, Chen Wen, Liu Yan, Bai Daming, Liu Xinyu, Zhang Sihong. 2003. The determination of the emplacement age of granite in Mingshui, Beishan area, and its implication[J]. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 22(2): 107-111 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Jiang Sihong, Nie Fengjun. 2006. Nd-isotope constraints on origin of granitoids in Beishan mountain area[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 80(6): 826-842 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Changnian. 1992. Petrology of Trace Elements in Igneous Rocks[M]. Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 97-109.
Li Huaikun, Geng Jianzhen, Hao Shuang, Zhang Yongqing, Li Huimin. 2009. Research on the dating zircon U-Pb age by LA-MC-ICPMS[J]. Journal of Mineralogy, 29(supp.): 600-601 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Jinchun, Zhao Ansheng, Cui Huiwen. 1996. The characteristics of geological tectonic in the north belt of Beishan[J]. Journal of Precious Metallic Geology, 5(1): 59-68 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Jinyi, He Guoqi, Xu Xin, Li Huaqin, Sun Guihua, Yang Tiannan, Gao Liming, Zhu Zhixin. 2006a. Crustal tectonic framework of northern Xinjiang and adjacent regions and its formation[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 80(1): 148-168 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Jinyi, Wang Kezhuo, Li Yaping, Sun Guihua, Chu Chunhua, Li Liqun, Zhu Zhixin. 2006b. Geomorphological features, crustal composition and geological evolution of the Tianshan Mountains[J]. Geological Bulletin of China, 25(8): 895-909 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Jinyi, Song Biao, Wang Kezhuo, Li Yaping, Sun Guihua, Qi Deyi. 2006c. Permian Mafic-Ultramafic complexes on the southern margin of the Tu-Ha Basin, East Tianshan Mountains:Geological records of vertical crustal growth in Central Asia[J]. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 27(5): 424-446 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Shan. 2009. Definition of Early Mesozoic Granitoids from Beishan Orogeny, Origin and their Tectonic Significance, and Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Early Mesozoic Granitoids in Central and South CAOB[D]. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences.
Li Shan. 2013. Triassic granitoids in Beishan-Inner Mongolia, China and its Tectonic Implications[D]. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences.
Li Xiaofei. 2013. Formation Age of Palaeozoic Granite from Mazongshan in Beishan Region, Geochemical Characteristics and its Tectonic Significance[D]. Xi'an: Northwest University (in Chinese).
Li Zaihui, Lin Shiliang, Cong Feng, Zhou Guangfu, Xie Tao. 2012. U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of quartz and monzonitic granite from the Tengchong-Lianghe block, Western Yunnan, and its geological implications[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 86(7): 1047-1062 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li Zhichang, Lu Yuanfa, Huang Kuicheng. 2004. Methodology and Progress in Radioactivity Isotope Geology[M]. Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 160-164 (in Chinese).
Liu Mingqiang, Zhu Yongxin. 2018. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the porphyritic monzonitic granite from Southwest Hongyanjing in Beishan area, Gansu Province and its significance[J]. Northwestern Geology, 51(1): 23-33 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Liu Xueya, Wang Quan. 1995. Tectonics of orogenic belts in Beishan MTS., western China and their evolution[J]. Research on Geology, (28): 37-48 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Liu Y S, Hu Z C, Gao S, Günther D, Xu J, Gao C G, Chen H H. 2008. In situ analysis of major and trace elements of anbydrous minerals by LA-ICP-MS without applying an internal standard[J]. Chemical Geology, 257: 34-43 (in Chinese).
Lu Fengxiang, Sang Longkang. 2002. Petrology[M]. Beijing: Geological Publish House, 373-380 (in Chinese).
Ludwig K R. 2001. Squid 1.02:A user's manual. Berkeley Geochronology Centre[J]. Special Publication, 2: 15-25.
Lu Jin cai, Niu Yazhuo, Wei Xianyang, Chen Gaochao, Li Yuhong. 2013. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the late Paleozoic volcanic rocks from the Hongshishan area of the Beishan orogenic belt and its tectonic significances[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29(8): 2685-2694 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Lü Daxin, Lü Hongjie. 2018. Zircon U-Pb age of monzonite granite from Abag Banner in Inner Mongolia and its tectonic significance[J]. Northwestern Geology, 51(2): 37-45 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Maniar P D, Piccoli P M. 1989. Tectonic discrimination of grnitoids[J]. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 101: 635-643.
Miao Laicheng, Zhu Mingshuai, Zhang Fuqin. 2014. Tectonic setting of Mesozoic magmatism and associated metallogenesis in Beishan area[J]. Geology in China, 41(4): 1190-1204 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Nie Fengjun, Jiang Sihong, Bai Daming, Wang Xinliang, Su Xinxu, Li Jingchun, Liu Yan, Zhao Shengmin. 2002a. Metallogenic Studies and Ore Prospecting in the Conjunction Area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Beishan Mt.), Northwest China[M]. Beijing: Geological Publishing House.
Nie Fengjun, Jiang Sihong, Liu Yan, Lin Yuanxian. 2002b. Sm-Nd isotopic dating of fluorite seperates from Dongqiyishan fluorite deposit, Alxa, Western Inner Mongolia[J]. Mineral Deposits, 21(1): 10-15 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Nie Fengjun, Jiang Sihong, Liu Yan, Zhang Yi. 2004. Sm-Nd isotope study on metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Jiaochagou metamorphic complex, Beishan Mt., Inner Mongolia[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 78(6): 807-812 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Nie Fengjun, Hu Peng, Jiang Sihong, Liu Yan, Zhang Wanyi. 2006. Nd isotope features of two types of granitoids and related ore deposits in the northern part of Beishan area, northwest China[J]. Mineral Deposits, 25(supp.): 139-142 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Niu Wenchao, Xin Houtian, Duan Lianfeng, Wang Genhou, Zhao Zelin, Zhang Guozhen, Zheng Yilong. 2019. The identification and subduction polarity of the Beishan ophiolite mélanges belt in Beishan area, Inner Mongolia-New understanding based on the geological map of Qinghegou Sheet (1:50000)[J]. Geology in China, 46(5): 977-994 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Pan Guitang, Xiao Qinghui, Lu Songnian, Deng Jinfu, Feng Yimin, Zhang Kexin, Zhang Zhiyong, Wang Fangguo, Xing Guangfu, Hao Guojie, Feng Yanfang. 2009. Subdivision of tectonic units in China[J]. Geology China, 36(1): 1-29 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Pearce J A, Harris N B W, Tindle A G. 1984. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks[J]. Journal of Petrology, 25: 656-682.
Peccerillo J, Taylor S R. 1976. Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonuarea, Northern Turkey[J]. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 58: 63-81.
Pitcher W S, Cobbing E J. 1985. Phanerozoic Plutonismin the Peruvian Edge[M]. London: Blackie, 19-25.
Ren Bingchen, He Shiping, Yao Wenguang, Fu Lipu. 2001. Rb-Sr isotope age of Niuquanzi ophiolite and its tectonic significance in Beishan district, Gansu[J]. Northwestern Geology, 34(2): 21-27 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Sun S S. 1980. Lead isotopic study of young volcanic rocks from mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and island arcs[J]. Phil. R. Soc. Lond, 297: 409-445.
Sun S S, McDonough W F. 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalt: Implications for mantle composition and processes[C]//Saunders A D, Norry M J (eds.). Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. London: Geological Society of London Specical Publications, 42: 528-548.
Wang Dezi, Zhou Jincheng. 1999. Look back and look forward to granite research[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 15(2): 2-10 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wang Guoqiang. 2015. The Research of the Paleozoic Ophiolites and Volcanic Rocks and the Tectonic Evolution in the Beishan Area (Northwest China)[D]. Xi'an: Chang'an University.
Wang Yuwang, Jiang Fuzhi. 1997. Features and distribution of volcanic rock associations of various ages in the Beishan area, Gansu[J]. Regional Geology of China, 16(3): 298-304 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Whalen J B, Currie K L, Chappell B W. 1987. A-type granites:Geochemical characteristics, discriminatuon and petrogenesis[J]. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 95: 407-419.
Windley B F, Alexeiev D, Xiao W J, Kroner A, Badarch G. 2007. Tectonic models for accretion of the Central Asian orogenic belt[J]. Journal of Geological Society, 164: 31-47.
Wu Yuanbao, Zheng Yongfei. 2004. Genetic mineralogy of zircons and its constraints to the age of U-Pb geochronology[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 49(16): 1589-1604 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xiao Wenjiao, Han Chunming, Yuan Chao, Chen Hanlin, Sun Min, Lin Shoufa, Li Zilong, Mao Qigui, Zhang Jien, Sun Shu, Li Jiliang. 2006. Unique Carboniferous-Permian tectonic-metallogenic framework of Northern Xinjiang (NW China):Constraints for the tectonics of the southern Paleoasian Domain[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 22(5): 1062-1076 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xiao Wenjiao, Shu Liangshu, Gao Jun, Xiong Xiaolin, Wang Jingbin, Guo Zhaojie, Li Jinyi, Sun Min. 2008. Geodynamic processes of Central Asian orogenic belt and its metallogeny[J]. Xinjiang Geology, 26(1): 4-8 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xiao W J, Windley B F, Yuan C, Sun M, Han C M, Lin S F, Chen H L, Yan Q R, Liu D Y, Qin K Z, Li J L, Sun S. 2009. Paleozoic multiple subduction-accretion processes of the southern Altaids[J]. American Journal of Science, 309: 221-270.
Xiao W J, Mao Q G, Windley B F, Han C M, Qu J F, Zhang J E, Ao S J, Guo Q Q, Cleven N R, Lin S F, Shan Y H, Li J L. 2010. Paleozoic multiple accretionary and collisional processes of the Beishan orogenic collage[J]. American Journal of Science, 310: 1553-1594.
Xiao Xuchang, Tang Yaoqing. 1991. Tectonic Evolution of the Southern Margin of the Paleo-Asian Composite Megasuture[M]. Beijing: Beijing Science & Technology Press, 1-29 (in Chinese).
Xiao Xuchang, Tang Yaoqing, Feng Yimin, Zhu Baoqing, Li Jinyi, Zhao Min. 1992. Tectonic Structure of the northern Xinjiang and its Adjacent Regions[M]. Beijing: Geological Publishing House (in Chinese).
Xie Chunlin, Yang Jianguo, Wang Lishe, Wang Yuxi, Wang Jingping. 2009. Disscussion on the location of Paleozoic island arc zone on the south margin of Paleo-Asian Ocean in Beishan area of Gansu province[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 83(11): 1584-1600 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xu Xueyi, He Shiping, Wang Hongliang, Chen Juanlu, Zhang Erpeng, Feng Yimin. 2008. Geological Generality of in Northwest China[M]. Beijing: Science Press (in Chinese).
Yang Hequn, Li Ying, Li Wenming, Yang Jianguo, Zhao Guobin, Sun Nanyi, Wang Xiaohong, Tan Wenjuan. 2008. General discussion on metallogenitic tectonic setting of Beishan mountain[J]. Northwestern Geology, 41(1): 22-28 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yang Hequn, Li Ying, Zhao Guobin, Wang Yonghe, Yang Jianguo, Li Wenming, Jiang Hanbing, Tan Wenjuan, Zhang Kaichun. 2009. Stratigraphic correlation and its significance of Xinjiang-Gansu-Inner Mongolia join area[J]. Northwestern Geology, 42(4): 60-75 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yang Hequn, Li Ying, Zhao Guobin, Li Wenyuan, Wang Xiaohong, Jiang Hanbing, Tan Wenjuan. 2010. Character and structural attribute of the Beishan ophiolite[J]. Northwestern Geology, 43(1): 26-36 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yang Jianzhou, Gong Jingjing, Gao Jianweng, Cai Yongwen, Xi Mingjie, Ma Shengming. 2019. Petrogenesis and geotectonic setting of mantle peridotites from the Baiyunshan ophiolite in Beishan orogen belt[J]. Northwestern Geology, 52(3): 1-13 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yang Yanqian, Li Bile, Ma Yanjing, Tan Yan, Bao Shanbin, Li Jiatai, Yu Xiaoliang, Wang Jiayin. 2018. Geochemistry and genesis of monzonitic granite from Aikengdelesite Area in East Kunlun, Qinghai[J]. Northwestern Geology, 51(1): 104-114 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yuan Sihua, Pan Guitang, Wang Liquan, Jiang Xinsheng, Yin Fuguang, Zhang Wanping, Zhuo Jiewen. 2009. Accretionary orogenesis in the active continental margins[J]. Earth Science Frontiers, 16(3): 31-48 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang Qi, Wang Yuanlong, Jin Weijun, Jia Xiuqin, Li Chengdong. 2008. Criteria for the recognition of pre-, syn-and post-orogenic granitic rocks, China[J]. Geological Bulletin of China, 27(1): 1-18 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang Xinhu. 1993. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Qilian and Beishan orogenic belt in Gansu, Qinghai, Nei Monggol (Inner Mongolia)[J]. Acta Geologica Gansu, 2(1): 80-87 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhao Zhenhua. 2007. How to use the trace element diagrams to discriminate tectonic setting[J]. Geotectonica et Metallogenia, 31(1): 92-103 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhao Zhixiong, Jia Yuanqin, Xu Hai, Wang Jinrong, Wang Xinliang, Liu Qiang. 2015. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of quartz diorite from the Jiaochagou area in Beishan orogenic belt, Inner Mongolia, and its tectonic significance[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 89(7): 1210-1218 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zheng Rongguo, Wu Tairan, Zhang Wen, Feng Jicheng. 2012. Geochemical characteristics and tectonic setting of the Yueyashanin-Xichangjing ophiolite in the Beishan area[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica, 86(6): 961-971 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zuo Guochao, Zhang Shuling, He Guoqi, Zhang Yang. 1990a. Early Paleozoic plate tectonics in Beishan area[J]. Scientia Geologica Sinica, (4): 305-315 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zuo Guochao, He Guoqi. 1990b. Plate Tectonics and Metallogenic Regularities in Beishan Region[M]. Beijing: Peking University Press, 1-226.
Zuo Guochao, Liu Yike, Liu Chunyan. 2003. Framework and evolution of the tectonic structure in Beishan area across GanSu Province, XinJiang autonomous region and Inner Mongolia autonomous region[J]. Acta Geologica Gansu, 12(1): 1-15 (in Chinese with English abstract).
邓晋福, 肖庆辉, 苏尚国, 刘翠, 赵国春, 吴宗絮, 刘勇. 2007. 火山岩组合与构造环境:讨论[J]. 高校地质学报, 13(3): 392-402.
邓晋福, 冯艳芳, 狄永军, 刘翠, 肖庆辉, 苏尚国, 赵国春, 孟斐, 马帅, 姚图. 2015a. 岩浆弧火成岩构造组合与洋陆转换[J]. 地质论评, 61(3): 473-484.
邓晋福, 刘翠, 冯艳芳, 肖庆辉, 狄永军, 苏尚国, 赵国春, 段培新, 戴蒙. 2015b. 关于火成岩常用图解的正确使用:讨论与建议[J]. 地质论评, 61(4): 717-734.
丁坤, 梁婷, 周义, 凤永刚, 张泽, 丁亮, 李侃. 2020. 西昆仑大红柳滩黑云母二长花岗岩岩石成因:来自锆石U-Pb年龄及Li-Hf同位素的证据[J]. 西北地质, 53(1): 24-34.
杜玉良, 殷先明, 冯治汉, 殷勇. 2009. 北山地区中生代构造-岩浆活动与成矿[J]. 西北地质, 42(2): 48-54.
冯艳芳, 邓晋福, 肖庆辉, 刑光福, 苏尚国, 崔显岳, 公凡影. 2011. TTG岩类的识别:讨论与建议[J]. 高校地质学报, 17(3): 406-414.
甘肃省地质矿产局. 1989. 甘肃省区域地质志[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
甘肃省地质矿产局. 1997. 甘肃省岩石地层[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
龚全胜, 刘明强, 梁明宏, 李海林. 2003. 北山造山带大地构造相及构造演化[J]. 西北地质, 36(1): 11-17.
郝增元. 2018.北山北部风雷山地区晚古生代花岗岩特征及其构造意义[D].北京: 中国地质大学(北京).
何世平, 任秉琛, 姚文光, 付力浦. 2002. 甘肃内蒙古北山地区构造单元划分[J]. 西北地质, 35(4): 30-40.
何世平, 周会武, 姚文光, 任秉琛, 付力浦. 2004. 甘肃北山中泥盆统砾岩中放射虫的发现及其地质意义[J]. 西北地质, 37(3): 24-29.
何世平, 周会武, 任秉琛, 姚文光, 付力浦. 2005. 甘肃内蒙古北山地区古生代地壳演化[J]. 西北地质, 38(3): 6-15.
Hugh R R. 2000.岩石地球化学[M].杨学明, 杨晓勇, 陈双喜.译.合肥: 中国科学技术大学出版社, 106-117, 155-160.
贾元琴, 赵志雄, 许海, 王新亮, 刘强, 王金荣. 2016. 北山风雷山地区白山组流纹岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及构造环境[J]. 中国地质, 43(1): 91-98.
江思宏, 聂凤军, 陈文, 刘妍, 白大明, 刘新宇, 张思红. 2003. 北山明水地区花岗岩时代的确定及其地质意义[J]. 岩石矿物学杂志, 22(2): 107-111.
江思宏, 聂凤军. 2006. 北山地区花岗岩类成因的Nd同位素制约[J]. 地质学报, 80(6): 826-842.
李昌年. 1992. 火成岩微量元素岩石学[M]. 武汉: 中国地质大学出版社, 97-109.
李怀坤, 耿建珍, 郝爽, 张永清, 李惠民. 2009. 用激光烧蚀多接收器等离子体质谱仪(LA-MC-ICPMS)测定锆石U-Pb同位素年龄的研究[J]. 矿物学报, 29(增刊): 600-601.
李锦春, 赵安生, 崔惠文. 1996. 北山北带地质构造特征[J]. 贵金属地质, 5(1): 59-68.
李锦轶, 何国琦, 徐新, 李华芹, 孙桂华, 杨天南, 高立明, 朱志新. 2006a. 新疆北部及邻区地壳构造格架及其形成过程的初步探讨[J]. 地质学报, 80(1): 148-168.
李锦轶, 王克卓, 李亚萍, 孙桂华, 褚春华, 李丽群, 朱志新. 2006b. 天山山脉地貌特征、地壳组成与地质演化[J]. 地质通报, 25(8): 895-909.
李锦轶, 宋彪, 王克卓, 李亚萍, 孙桂华, 齐得义. 2006c. 东天山吐哈盆地南缘二叠纪幔源岩浆杂岩:中亚地区陆壳垂向生长的地质记录[J]. 地球学报, 27(5): 424-446.
李舢. 2009.北山造山带早中生代花岗岩的确定、成因和构造意义及其邻区早中生代花岗岩时空分布探讨[D].北京: 中国地质科学院. http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-82501-1011152755.htm
李舢. 2013.北山-内蒙古地区三叠纪花岗岩及其构造意义[D].北京: 中国地质科学院. http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-82501-1016056600.htm
李小菲. 2013.北山马鬃山地区古生代花岗岩形成年龄、地球化学特征及其地质意义[D].西安: 西北大学. http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10697-1013255825.htm
李再会, 林仕良, 丛峰, 邹光富, 谢韬. 2012. 滇西腾冲-梁河地块石英闪长岩-二长花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄、Hf同位素特征及其地质意义[J]. 地质学报, 86(7): 1047-1062.
李志昌, 路远发, 黄奎成. 2004. 放射性同位素地质学方法与进展[M]. 武汉: 中国地质大学出版社, 160-164.
刘明强, 朱永新. 2018. 甘肃北山红岩井西南似斑状二长花岗岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年及其地质意义[J]. 西北地质, 51(1): 23-33.
刘雪亚, 王荃. 1995. 中国西部北山造山带的大地构造及其演化[J]. 地学研究, (28): 37-48.
陆凤香, 桑隆康. 2002. 岩石学[M]. 北京: 地质出版社, 373-380.
吕达鑫, 吕红杰. 2018. 内蒙古阿巴嘎旗二长花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄确定及其构造意义[J]. 西北地质, 51(2): 37-45.
卢进才, 牛亚卓, 魏仙样, 陈高潮, 李玉宏. 2013. 北山红石山地区晚古生代火山岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄及其构造意义[J]. 岩石学报, 29(8): 2685-2694.
苗来成, 朱明帅, 张福勤. 2014. 北山地区中生代岩浆活动与成矿构造背景分析[J]. 中国地质, 41(4): 1190-1204.
内蒙古自治区地质矿产局. 1991. 内蒙古自治区区域地质志[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
内蒙古自治区地质矿产局. 1996. 内蒙古岩石地层[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
聂凤军, 江思宏, 白大明, 王新亮, 苏新旭, 李景春, 刘妍, 赵省民. 2002a. 北山地区金属矿床成矿规律及找矿方向[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
聂凤军, 江思宏, 刘研, 林源贤. 2002b. 阿拉善东七一山大型萤石矿床萤石钐-钕同位素年龄及地质意义[J]. 矿床地质, 21(1): 10-15.
聂凤军, 江思宏, 刘研, 张义. 2004. 内蒙古北山交叉沟地区变质火山岩Sm-Nd同位素研究[J]. 甘肃地质学报, 78(6): 807-812.
聂凤军, 胡朋, 江思宏, 刘妍, 张万益. 2006. 北山北部古生代两类花岗岩及有关矿床的钕同位素特征[J]. 矿床地质, 25(增): 139-142.
牛文超, 辛后田, 段连峰, 王根厚, 赵泽霖, 张国震, 郑艺龙. 2019. 内蒙古北山地区百合山蛇绿混杂岩带的厘定及其洋盆俯冲极性——基于1:5万清河沟幅地质图的新认识[J]. 中国地质, 46(5): 977-994.
潘桂棠, 肖庆辉, 陆松年, 邓晋福, 冯益民, 张克信, 张智勇, 王方国, 邢光福, 郝国杰, 冯艳芳. 2009. 中国大地构造单元划分[J]. 中国地质, 36(1): 1-29.
任秉琛, 何世平, 姚文光, 付力浦. 2001. 甘肃北山牛圈子蛇绿岩铷-锶同位素年龄及其大地构造意义[J]. 西北地质, 34(2): 21-27.
王德滋, 周金城. 1999. 我国花岗岩研究的回顾与展望[J]. 岩石学报, 15(02): 2-10.
王国强. 2015.北山古生代蛇绿岩-火山岩研究与构造演化: [D].西安: 长安大学. http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10710-1015803561.htm
王玉往, 姜福芝. 1997. 北山地区各时代火山岩组合特征及分布[J]. 中国区域地质, 16(3): 298-304.
吴元保, 郑永飞. 2004. 锆石成因矿物学研究及其对U-Pb年龄解释的制约[J]. 科学通报, 49(16): 1589-1604.
肖文交, 韩春明, 袁超, 陈汉林, 孙敏, 林寿发, 厉子龙, 毛启贵, 张继恩, 孙枢, 李继亮. 2006. 新疆北部石炭纪-二叠纪独特的构造-成矿作用:对古亚洲洋构造域南部大地构造演化的制约[J]. 岩石学报, 22(5): 1062-1076.
肖文交, 舒良树, 高俊, 熊小林, 王京彬, 郭召杰, 李锦轶, 孙敏. 2008. 中亚造山带大陆动力学过程与成矿作用[J]. 新疆地质, 26(1): 4-8.
肖序常, 汤耀庆. 1991. 古中亚复合巨型缝合带南缘构造演化[M]. 北京: 北京科学技术出版社, 1-29.
肖序常, 汤耀庆, 冯益民, 朱宝清, 李锦轶, 赵民. 1992. 新疆北部及其邻区大地构造[M]. 北京: 地质出版社.
谢春林, 杨建国, 王立社, 王育习, 王静平. 2009. 甘肃北山地区古亚洲南缘古生代岛弧带位置的讨论[J]. 地质学报, 83(11): 1584-1600.
徐学义, 何世平, 王洪亮, 陈隽璐, 张二朋, 冯益民. 2008. 中国西北部地质概论[M]. 北京: 科学出版社.
杨合群, 李英, 李文明, 杨建国, 赵国斌, 孙南一, 王小红, 谭文娟. 2008. 北山成矿构造背景概论[J]. 西北地质, 41(1): 22-28.
杨合群, 李英, 赵国斌, 王永和, 杨建国, 李文明, 姜寒冰, 谭文娟, 张开春. 2009. 新疆-甘肃-内蒙古衔接区地层对比及其意义[J]. 西北地质, 42(4): 60-75.
杨合群, 李英, 赵国斌, 李文渊, 王小红, 姜寒冰, 谭文娟, 孙南一. 2010. 北山蛇绿岩特征及构造属性[J]. 西北地质, 43(1): 26-36.
杨剑洲, 龚晶晶, 高健翁, 蔡永文, 席明杰, 马生明. 2019. 北山造山带白云山蛇绿岩地幔橄榄岩成因及形成环境[J]. 西北地质, 52(3): 1-13.
杨延乾, 李碧乐, 马延景, 谈艳, 保善斌, 李嘉泰, 于小亮, 王佳音. 2018. 东昆仑埃坑德勒斯特二长花岗岩岩石地球化学特征及岩石成因[J]. 西北地质, 51(1): 104-114.
袁四化, 潘桂棠, 王立全, 江新胜, 尹福光, 张万平, 卓皆文. 2009. 大陆边缘增生造山作用[J]. 地学前缘, 16(3): 31-48.
张旗, 王元龙, 金惟俊, 贾秀勤, 李承东. 2008. 造山前、造山和造山后花岗岩的识别[J]. 地质通报, 27(1): 1-18.
张新虎. 1993. 甘、青、蒙祁连山、北山造山带构造地层演化史[J]. 甘肃地质学报, 2(1): 80-87.
赵振华. 2007. 关于岩石微量元素构造环境判别图解使用的有关问题[J]. 大地构造与成矿学, 31(1): 92-103.
赵志雄, 贾元琴, 许海, 王金荣, 王新亮, 刘强. 2015. 北山交叉沟石英闪长岩锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄及构造意义[J]. 地质学报, 89(7): 1210-1218.
郑荣国, 吴泰然, 张文, 冯继承. 2012. 北山地区月牙山-洗肠井蛇绿岩的地球化学特征及形成环境[J]. 地质学报, 86(6): 961-971.
左国朝, 张淑玲, 何国琦, 张杨. 1990a. 北山地区早古生代板块构造特征[J]. 地质科学, (4): 305-315.
左国朝, 何国琦. 1990b. 北山板块构造及成矿规律[M]. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 1-226.
左国朝, 刘义科, 刘春燕. 2003. 甘新蒙北山地区构造格局及演化[J]. 甘肃地质学报, 12(1): 1-15.