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  中国地质 2021, Vol. 48 Issue (1): 229-246  
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许强伟, 王玭, 王志强, 王成明, 郑义, 方京. 2021. 内蒙古克什克腾旗长岭子斜长花岗斑岩锆石U-Pb年龄、成因与碰撞造山作用[J]. 中国地质, 48(1): 229-246.  
Xu Qiangwei, Wang Pin, Wang Zhiqiang, Wang Chengming, Zheng Yi, Fang Jing. 2021. Zirzon U-Pb age and petrogenisis of plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi, Hexigten Banner, Inner Mongolia and its collision orogeny[J]. Geology in China, 48(1): 229-246. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

内蒙古克什克腾旗长岭子斜长花岗斑岩锆石U-Pb年龄、成因与碰撞造山作用
许强伟1, 王玭2,1, 王志强3, 王成明4, 郑义4, 方京5    
1. 北京大学地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871;
2. 中国科学院边缘海与大洋地质重点实验室南海海洋研究所, 广东 广州 510301;
3. 合肥工业大学资源与环境工程学院, 安徽 合肥 230009;
4. 中山大学地球科学与工程学院, 广东 广州 510275;
5. 中国科学院深海科学与工程研究所, 海南 三亚 572000
摘要:内蒙古克什克腾旗长岭子斜长花岗斑岩位于大兴安岭锡林浩特增生杂岩带内。本文对长岭子斜长花岗斑岩进行了主微量元素地球化学以及锆石U-Pb年代学和Lu-Hf同位素研究。长岭子斜长花岗斑岩锆石206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为(248.1±4.7)Ma,是早三叠世岩浆活动的产物;继承锆石除外,样品中锆石具有正的εHf(t)值(5.78~12.41),二阶段模式年龄TDM2分别为914~488 Ma。长岭子斜长花岗斑岩具有较高的SiO2、Na2O和Al2O3含量以及较低的Fe2O3、MgO和CaO含量,属于偏铝质-过铝质的低钾-钙碱性系列I型花岗岩,富集Rb、K、U、Th、Pb、Sr等大离子亲石元素,亏损Nd、Ta、Ti等高场强元素。同时,斜长花岗斑岩具有高Sr低Y以及高Sr/Y比等特点,具有典型的埃达克质岩石特征,形成于加厚下地壳的部分熔融。综合上述地球化学特征,本文认为长岭子斜长花岗斑岩来源于加厚新生下地壳的部分熔融,表明早三叠世兴蒙地区并非岛弧的环境,而是处于碰撞造山环境,古亚洲洋在该时期已经闭合。
关键词大兴安岭    早三叠世岩浆岩    锆石U-Pb定年    锆石Hf同位素    地球化学    古亚洲洋    地质调查工程    
中图分类号:P597;P588.12+1            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2021)01-0229-18
Zirzon U-Pb age and petrogenisis of plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi, Hexigten Banner, Inner Mongolia and its collision orogeny
XU Qiangwei1, WANG Pin2,1, WANG Zhiqiang3, WANG Chengming4, ZHENG Yi4, FANG Jing5    
1. School of Earth and Space Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
2. Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, China;
3. School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui, China;
4. School of Earth Sciences and Geological Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, China;
5. Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, Hainan, China
Abstract: The Changlingzi plagiogranite porphyry is located in the Xilinhot Late Paleozoic Accretion Complex within the Da Hinggan Mountains. This study is focused on the zircon U -Pb isotopic geochronology, Hf isotopic composition analysis and geochemistry of the Changlingzi plagiogranite porphyry. Zircon crystals from the plagiogranite porphyry yielded weighted average 206Pb/238U age of (248.1±4.7)Ma. The zircons from this porphyry have positive εHf(t) values from 5.78 to 12.41, with TDM2(Hf) ages from 914 to 488Ma. The plagiogranite porphyry has high content of SiO2, Na2O and Al2O3, and low content of TiO2, MgO and CaO, showing a metaluminous-peraluminouslow-K to calc-alkaline affinity, with LREE enrichment and HREE depletion, suggesting I-type granite. In addition, the plagiogranite porphyry has high Sr and low Y values as well as high Sr/Y ratios (74.5~103.4), indicating that the plagiogranite porphyry belongs to adakite. It is suggested that the plagiogranite porphyry was formed by partial melting of the thickened newborn lower crust. And in Early Triassic, Xing' an-Mongolian orogenic belt was in a collisionorogeny tectonic setting, indicating that the Paleo-Asian Ocean had been closed in this period.
Key words: Da Hinggan Mountains    Early Triassic magmatic rocks    zircon U-Pb ages    zircon Hf isotope    geochemistry    paleoAsian Ocean    geological Survey engineering    

1 引言

中亚造山带北与西伯利亚板块相邻,南与华北克拉通和塔里木克拉通毗邻(Sengör et al., 1993),在其构造演化过程中,经历了大洋开启与俯冲、板块碰撞拼合、后造山等阶段,由岛弧、蛇绿岩、洋岛、海山、增生楔、洋底高原和微陆块等增生拼贴而成(Dobretsov et al., 1995; Windley et al., 2007)。中国东北地区(兴蒙造山带)位于中亚造山带东段,夹于西伯利亚板块和华北克拉通之间,主要由松辽盆地、大兴安岭地区、华北克拉通北缘和吉黑褶皱带组成,以微地块与褶皱带的交织分布为特征(图 1)。该地区构造演化历史复杂,既有古亚洲洋演化特征,又有滨太平洋造山带所叠加的特点(黄汲清, 1987; 任纪舜等, 1990; 邵济安等, 1995; 吴福元等, 1999; 彭玉鲸等, 2002),是大陆造山带地质构造研究遗留问题和争议较多的地区,也是研究构造域转换、叠合成矿作用的理想地区(陈衍景等, 2009, 2012; Chen et al., 2016)。

图 1 中国东北大地构造简图(a,据陈衍景等, 2012; Chen et al., 2016修改)及黄岗—甘珠尔庙地区地质简图(b,据芮宗瑶等, 1994修改) Fig. 1 Simplified tectonic map of Northeast China (a, modified after Chen et al., 2012, 2016);Sketch geological map of the Huanggang–Ganzhuermiao area (b, modified after Rui et al., 1994)

有关古亚洲洋闭合的时间就是目前争议较多的一个问题,主要有以下两种观点:(1)一部分学者认为古亚洲洋闭合于中晚泥盆世至早石炭世(Tang, 1990; 邵济安, 1991, 2015; 徐备等, 1997, 2014);另一部分学者认为,整个古生代期间古亚洲洋板片向南北两侧不断俯冲,并引起西伯利亚板块和华北克拉通不断的相对增生,最终古亚洲洋于晚二叠世至早三叠世闭合(王荃, 1991; Xiao et al., 2003, 2009; 李锦轶, 2007; Jian et al., 2008; 陈斌等, 2009; 石玉若等, 2014; Chen et al., 2016)。内蒙古锡林浩特—林西地区是涉及上述争议关键地区之一,其广泛发育的中生代火成岩,蕴含着区域构造演化的重要信息(吴福元等, 1997),是揭示兴蒙造山带大地构造及岩浆演化的关键。本文对位于锡林浩特—林西地区的克什克腾旗长岭子斜长花岗斑岩进行了岩石学、岩石地球化学及锆石U-Pb年代学研究,进而探讨了其形成时代、岩石成因以及构造环境,为其构造环境和岩石成因提供依据,同时为古亚洲洋闭合的时间提供证据。

2 区域地质背景

中亚造山带西起哈萨克斯坦向东延伸至西伯利亚,宽约300 km,其北为西伯利亚克拉通,南为塔里木及华北克拉通(Xiao et al., 2003)。大兴安岭属于中亚造山带东段,其北以蒙古—鄂霍茨克缝合带与西伯利亚克拉通为界,南以康保—赤峰断裂与华北克拉通为界,东以嫩江断裂与松辽盆地为界,向西延伸至俄罗斯、蒙古境内(图 1a),区内包括4个主要的构造单元,自北向南依次为额尔古纳地块、兴安地块、锡林浩特晚古生代增生杂岩带以及温都尔庙早古生代弧增生杂岩带,分别以得尔布干断裂、二连—贺根山断裂、西拉木伦断裂为界(图 1a祁进平等, 2005; 陈衍景等, 2012; Li et al., 2012a)。二连—贺根山断裂带(索伦缝合带),被认为是古亚洲洋最终闭合的位置(祁进平等, 2005; 陈衍景等, 2012)。

该区主要发育4个岩石地层序列:以额尔古纳地块中新元古代兴华渡口群为代表的前寒武纪变质基底(Wu et al., 2012);由片岩、砂质页岩、大理岩和安山岩组成的早古生代变质火山-沉积岩序列;广泛发育的晚古生代低级变质火山-沉积岩;侏罗纪—白垩纪中酸性火山岩(Wu et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2012; Zhai et al., 2014)。该区侵入岩主要形成于晚古生代和中生代,并有少量早古生代侵入岩出露于漠河、塔河以及多宝山地区(Ge et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2012; Wu et al., 2005, 2012)。晚古生代和中生代侵入岩主要为花岗岩类,可见少量晚古生代镁铁质—超镁铁质岩石沿构造单元的边界部位发育(刘建明等, 2004)。

内蒙古克什克腾旗长岭子地区位于大兴安岭南段黄岗—甘珠尔庙地区,西拉木伦断裂、二连—贺根山断裂以及嫩江断裂的交汇处,属于中亚造山带的东段(图 1a)。区域内主要出露有元古宙、古生代、中生代和新生代地层,其中二叠纪和侏罗纪地层出露最为广泛。

区内古生代地层经历了强烈的褶皱,黄岗—甘珠尔庙复式背斜呈NE-SW向贯穿本区。区内断裂构造发育,以NE-NNE向和EW向为主。这些断裂近乎等距分布,相互切割成格子状,构成区域基本构造格架(图 1b舒启海等, 2011)。NE向的黄岗—甘珠尔庙断裂带对本区二叠纪和侏罗纪地质发展起着重要的控制作用(王琦, 1991; 舒启海等, 2011)。

区内海西期以来的岩浆活动频繁,表现为强烈的火山喷发和岩浆侵入活动,且自SW向NE火山岩呈现由基性向中酸性演化的趋势(王琦, 1991; 舒启海等, 2011)。伴随强烈的岩浆活动,区内燕山期成矿作用活跃,成为中亚造山带兴蒙段最主要的大规模成矿作用发生时期(陈衍景等, 2009)。区内晚侏罗世火山活动表现为一套陆相喷发的中酸性火山岩系列,其分布受区域构造的控制,总体呈NE向展布(图 1c)。

3 岩体地质

长岭子地区地层出露简单,主要有早二叠世大石寨组、早白垩世白音高老组及第四系(图 2)。大石寨组厚度大于1000 m,主要岩性为英安质岩屑晶屑凝灰岩、砾岩、砂岩,分布于研究区北部。白音高老组主要由流纹质岩屑晶屑凝灰岩和流纹质晶屑凝灰岩组成,分布于研究区南部,与大石寨组呈不整合接触关系,呈盖层状覆盖其上(图 2)。

图 2 长岭子研究区地质简图(据内蒙古山金地质矿产勘查有限公司修改) Fig. 2 Geological map of the Changlingzi area (after Inner Mongolia Shandong Gold Geological and Mineral Exploration Co. Ltd.)

区内褶皱构造和断裂构造地表发育不明显。仅由钻孔揭露出区内发育少量断裂构造、构造角砾岩带和揉皱构造。

区内岩浆岩出露较少,仅在北部出露斜长花岗斑岩体,呈岩株状产出,侵入到大石寨组砾岩和砂岩中,出露面积约0.5 km2图 2)。斜长花岗斑岩体地表呈黄白色,斑状结构,块状构造(图 3a)。斑晶含量40%~ 50%,主要为斜长石(30%~40%)、钾长石(5%~15%)及少量黑云母(2%)和角闪石(1%)。斜长石斑晶呈白色—灰白色肉眼可见(图 3a),自形—半自形板状、粒状,常见聚片双晶,有时可见格子双晶,粒度介于0.2~2 mm,普遍发生绿帘石化、高岭土化和绢云母化(图 3b);钾长石斑晶半自形板状,常见典型的卡式双晶,粒度介于0.5~2 mm,普遍发生弱的高岭土化(图 3c);黑云母斑晶多为褐色片状,一组极完全解理(图 3d),粒度介于0.5~1 mm;角闪石可见其特征的菱形横切面,粒度介于0.1~0.2 mm,多被绿帘石交代(图 3e)。基质为微晶-隐晶质,含量50%~60%,成分主要为石英、斜长石,钾长石以及少量的云母类矿物,半自形—他形粒状,粒度<0.1 mm。

图 3 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩岩相学特征 a—斜长花岗斑岩手标本照片;b—斜长花岗斑岩中斜长石斑晶发生绢云母化,可见聚片双晶,基质主要为长英质(正交偏光);c—斜长花岗斑岩中正长石斑晶,可见典型的卡式双晶(正交偏光);d—斜长花岗斑岩中正长石斑晶(单偏光);e—斜长花岗斑岩中角闪石斑晶,角闪石被绿帘石交代(正交偏光);f—斜长花岗斑岩中黑云母斑晶(单偏光);Q—石英;Pl—斜长石;Or—正长石;Hb—角闪石;Bi—黑云母 Fig. 3 Petrographic characteristics of the plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area a-Hand specimen photo of the plagiogranite porphyry; b-The feldspar phenocrysts with sericitizationin in plagiogranite porphyry, polysynthetic twin observed in feldspar and the matrix being predominantly felsic (crossed nicols); c-The orthoclase phenocrysts in the plagiogranite porphyry with carlsbad twin observed in orthoclase (crossed nicols); d-The orthoclase phenocrysts in the plagiogranite porphyry (plainlight); e-The hornblende phenocrysts in the plagiogranite porphyry, the hornblende replaced by epidote (crossed nicols); f-The biotite phenocryst in the plagiogranite porphyry (plainlight); Q-Quartz; Pl-Plagioclase; Or-Orthocalse; Hb-Hornblende; Bi-Biotite
4 样品及测试方法 4.1 样品

本次研究共采集4块斜长花岗斑岩样品(CLZ3, 23, 27, 29)进行主量及微量元素分析。选择样品CLZ27进行锆石U-Pb定年及Hf同位素分析,采样位置如图 2所示。

4.2 分析方法

全岩主微量分析在北京大学造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室进行,其中主量元素测试使用XRF(X射线荧光光谱)方法,微量元素测试使用ICP-MS(高分辨等离子质谱)方法(详见张文慧等, 2005)。样品测试误差普遍小于10%,稀土元素均小于5%。

锆石U-Pb同位素分析在北京大学造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室进行。激光剥蚀束斑直径为32 μm,激光能量密度为10 J/cm2,剥蚀频率为5 Hz。实验中采用He作为剥蚀物质的载气,Ar为辅助气。锆石年龄计算采用标准锆石Plesovice(337 Ma)作为外标(Sláma et al., 2008),标准锆石91500为监控盲样。采样方式为单点剥蚀,每完成5个测点的样品测定,加测标样1次。在15个锆石样品点前、后各测2次NIST610。样品的同位素比值和元素含量数据处理采用GLITTER4.4.2程序计,普通铅校正使用Anderson(2002)给出的程序计算,加权平均年龄及谐和图的绘制使用Isoplot/Ex(3.0)(Ludwig,2003)完成。分析数据及锆石U-Pb谐和图给出误差为2σ,95%的置信度。

锆石Hf同位素分析在西北大学地质学系大陆动力学教育部重点实验室进行。锆石原位Lu-Hf同位素测定采用Nu plasma HR (wrexham, UK)多接收电感耦合等离子体质谱仪完成(MC-ICP-Ms)。激光斑束直径44 μm,频率为8 Hz,激光能量为90 mJ,采用锆石国际标样91500作外标,每隔10个数据点测试1次标样。标样176Hf/177Hf和176Lu/177Hf值分别为0.282314±21和0.0003,与Wu et al.(2006)Goolaerts et al.(2004)报道的数据在误差范围内一致,Hf分析步骤和数据处理方法详见文献Yuan et al.(2004)

5 分析结果 5.1 元素地球化学 5.1.1 主量元素

长岭子斜长花岗斑岩样品主量元素组成见表 1,SiO2含量介于69.45%~74.40%,Al2O3含量介于14.56% ~16.74%,贫MgO(0.23% ~0.54%)、Fe2O3T(1.54% ~2.84%)、CaO(0.23% ~3.78%),富Na(Na2O= 4.78%~6.57%),贫K(K2O= 0.66%~1.63%),K2O+Na2O介于5.52%~8.30%,K2O/Na2O介于0.14~ 0.25。在TAS图(图 4a)中,样品均属于亚碱性系列,成分点集中落在花岗闪长岩-花岗岩区域。铝饱和指数A/CNK为0.97~1.35,A/NK值为1.31~1.74,为偏铝质-过铝质岩石(图 4b)。里特曼指数(δ)介于1.08~2.45,属于钙碱性系列,在SiO2-K2O图解(图 4c)中落在低钾—钙碱性系列区域。

表 1 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩全岩主量元素(%)和微量元素(10−6)分析结果 Table 1 Major (%) and trace(10−6) elements compositions of the plagiogranite porphyries in Changlingzi area
图 4 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩SiO2-(Na2O + K2O)图解(a,据Le Maitre, 2002)、A/CNK-A/NK图解(b,据Maniar and Piccoli, 1989)和SiO2-K2O图解(c,据Rickwood, 1989 Fig. 4 SiO2-(Na2O + K2O) (a, after Le Maitre, 2002), ACNKANK (b, after Maniar and Piccoli, 1989) and SiO2-K2O (c, after Rickwood, 1989) diagrams for plagiogranite porphyries in Changlingzi area
5.1.2 微量元素特征

长岭子斜长花岗斑岩样品微量元素分析结果见表 1。岩体呈现右倾的球粒陨石标准化稀土配分曲线(图 5a),轻稀土富集,重稀土亏损;岩体∑REE含量为49.93 × 10-6~68.67 × 10-6,LREE/HREE为3.71~5.31,(La/Yb)N介于13.90~29.98;(La/Sm)N = 3.30 ~ 4.96,轻稀土分馏明显,(Gd/Yb)N = 2.46~2.72,重稀土分馏不明显;无明显Eu异常,Eu/Eu*值为0.83 ~ 1.06。

图 5 长岭子研究区斜长花岗斑岩球粒陨石标准化稀土元素配分曲线(a)和原始地幔标准化微量元素蛛网图(b)(球粒陨石标准化值和原始地幔标准化值据Sun and McDonough, 1989 Fig. 5 Chondrite-normalized REE patterns (a) and primitive mantle normalized trace element spider diagrams (b) for plagiogranite porphyries in Changlingzi area (chondrite normalization values and primitive mantle normalization values after Sun and McDonough, 1989)

在原始地幔标准化微量元素蛛网图上(图 5b),岩体富集Rb、K、U、Th、Pb、Sr,亏损Nd、Ta、Ti。岩体具有高Sr(444×10-6~602×10-6)(除1个样品Sr = 161×10-6含量较低以外),低Y(4.6×10-6~6.3×10-6)以及高Sr/Y(34.1~103.4)等特点(表 1)。

5.2 锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb年龄

本次研究所选取的岩石样品中大多数锆石基本特征类似,为半自形—自形短柱状或长柱状,粒径77~176 μm,无色到略带浅黄色,透明度高,裂隙少。CL图像显示(图 6a),大部分锆石可见振荡环带,为典型的岩浆锆石。斜长花岗斑岩样品中锆石的Th、U含量平均偏高,变化大,Th含量为26.0× 10-6~502.8×10-6,U含量为76.4×10-6~893.5×10-6,Th/ U比值在0.21~1.20,平均值为0.48(表 2),显示出岩浆成因锆石的特点(吴元保和郑永飞, 2004),与CL照片(图 6a)所得的结论一致。

图 6 长岭子研究区斜长花岗斑岩锆石CL图像(a)和LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄谐和图(b, c) Fig. 6 Cathodoluminescent images (a) and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb concordia diagrams (b, c) for plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area
表 2 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩锆石LA−ICP−MS U−Pb定年分析结果 Table 2 LA−ICP−MS Zircon U−Pb analysis for the plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area

长岭子岩浆岩锆石U-Pb年龄分析结果见表 2图 6。由于样品颗粒大小、厚度的影响,本次研究最终获得20个锆石测年数据,其中,8、11和18号测点206Pb/238U年龄分别为(326 ± 6) Ma、(293 ± 4) Ma和(437 ± 5) Ma,Th/U值分别为1.20、0.36和0.65,锆石发育振荡环带,为岩浆锆石;12、13和20号测点207Pb/206Pb年龄在1827~2458 Ma,Th/U值介于0.24~0.55,应为继承锆石;其余14个测点获得206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为(248.1 ± 4.7)Ma(MSWD = 4.7)。

5.3 锆石Hf同位素特征

锆石Hf同位素分析结果见表 3,斜长花岗斑岩中锆石的176Lu/177Hf比值均小于0.002,说明锆石形成以后具有较低的放射性成因Hf积累,因而176Hf/177Hf测值可以代表锆石形成时的176Hf/177Hf比值(吴福元等, 2007)。表中斜长花岗斑岩fLu/Hf为-0.99~-0.96,平均为-0.97,明显小于镁铁质地壳的fLu/Hf(-0.34)和硅铝质地壳的fLu/Hf(-0.72)(Vervoort et al., 1996),故二阶段模式年龄能反映其源区物质从亏损地幔被抽取的时间。根据Hf同位素相关计算公式(吴福元等, 2007),采用硅铝质大陆地壳fLu/Hf计算了2个火成岩样品的初始εHf(t)、TDM1TDM2表 3)。

表 3 长岭子研究区斜长花岗斑岩锆石Lu−Hf同位素分析结果 Table 3 Zircon Lu−Hf isotope analysis for the plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area

斜长花岗斑岩176Lu/177Hf和176Hf/177Hf分别为0.000315~0.001478和0.282786~0.282968。计算出εHf(t)为5.8~12.2,fLu/Hf变化范围在-0.99~-0.96,TDM2变化范围在909~492 Ma。

6 讨论 6.1 岩石成因

研究区早三叠世斜长花岗斑岩造岩矿物主要包括石英、斜长石、碱性长石以及黑云母和角闪石等暗色矿物(图 3);地球化学方面属于低钾-钙碱性系列,铝饱和指数指示岩石为偏铝质-过铝质(图 5b)。在K2O- Na2O图解中(图 7)(Collins et al., 1982)研究区样品皆落入I型花岗岩区域,以上岩石学和元素地球化学特征表明研究区斜长花岗斑岩属于I型花岗岩类。I型花岗岩起源于下部地壳(Infracrustal)或未经风化作用的火成岩(Igneous)的部分熔融,通过Hf同位素的示踪,可以对岩浆源区物质组成进行有效的约束(刘建峰等,2014)。

图 7 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩K2O-Na2O图解(据Collins et al., 1982 Fig. 7 K2O-Na2O diagram for plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area (after Collins et al., 1982)

锆石的Lu-Hf同位素体系由于具有很高的封闭温度,其同位素比值不会随后期部分熔融或分离结晶而变化,因此锆石εHf(t)值代表了岩浆源区的成分特征。通常认为具有正εHf(t)值的花岗质岩石来自亏损地幔或从亏损地幔中新增生的年轻地壳物质部分熔融(隋振民等, 2009),负值εHf(t)通常代表古老地壳成因(吴福元等, 2007)。前人研究表明,兴蒙造山带与华北克拉通北缘以西拉沐沦河断裂为界,二者显生宙时期的岩浆岩显示了截然不同的同位素特征。兴蒙造山带的岩浆岩多具有正的εHf(t)值以及年轻的模式年龄,显示亏损地幔或新生地壳来源的特征(吴福元等, 1999; Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; 洪大卫等, 2000, 2003; Wu et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2011, 2013);而华北克拉通北缘的多具有负的εHf(t)值以及古老的模式年龄,显示富集岩石圈地幔或古老地壳物质重熔的特征(Yang et al., 2006; 田伟等, 2007; Zhang et al., 2007, 2009a, 2009b; 王芳等, 2009; Shi et al., 2010)。长岭子早三叠世斜长花岗斑岩在同位素特征上显示了正的εHf(t)值以及年轻的模式年龄(图 8),因此其源区可能为亏损地幔或新增生下地壳。此外,在锆石测年数据中出现古生代(测点8、11和18年龄分别为(326±6) Ma、(293±4) Ma和(437±5) Ma)和元古宙(测点12、13和20年龄分别为(2458±31) Ma、(1827±34) Ma和(2135 ± 6) Ma)的继承锆石,结合区域上前人研究成果,古生代继承锆石可能来源于兴蒙造山带(施光海等, 2003; 鲍庆中等, 2007; 刘建峰, 2009; 葛梦春等, 2011; 王炎阳等, 2014),元古宙继承锆石可能来源于华北克拉通北缘(彭彭等, 2002; 郑永飞, 2004; 简平等, 2005; 翟明国等, 2007; 刘树文等, 2007)。

图 8 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩锆石εHf(t)-t图解 (阴影部分代表兴蒙造山带东段中生代花岗岩和辉长岩,虚线框部分代表燕山地区岩浆岩;数据来源:兴蒙造山带东段和燕山地区岩浆岩锆石εHf(t)范围据Yang et al., 2006;中生代火山岩据张超等(2014)和谭皓元等(2017);林西组据朱俊宾等(2017);大石寨组据张健(2012)和作者未发表数据;宝音图群据孙立新等(2013);白垩纪花岗岩据杨奇荻等(2014)、周振华等(2011)Zhou ZH et al., 2012;侏罗纪花岗岩据杨奇荻等(2014)、刘伟等(2007)Liu et al., 2009;二叠纪花岗岩据Wang et al., 2017) Fig. 8 Zircon εHf(t)-t diagram for plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area (The shaded part represents the Mesozoic granites and gabbros in the eastern segment of the Xingmeng orogenic belt, and the dotted section \ represents the magmatic rocks in the Yanshan area)Data sources: Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic belt and Yanshan area zircon εHf(t) range after Yang et al., 2006; Mesozoic volcanic rocks after Zhang et al., 2014 and Tan et al., 2017; the Linxi Formation after Zhu et al., 2017; the Dashizhai Formation after Zhang, 2012 and the authors'unpublished data; the Baoyintu Group after Sun et al., 2013; Cretaceous granite after Yang et al., 2014 and Zhou et al., 2011, 2012; Jurassic granite after Yang et al., 2012 and Liu et al., 2007, 2009; Permian granite after Wang et al., 2017)

另一方面,长岭子早三叠世斜长花岗斑岩具有高SiO2(69.45%~74.40%)、Al2O3(14.56% ~16.74%)、Sr(444×10-6~602×10-6)(除1个样品Sr=161×10-6含量较低以外),低Y(5.5×10-6 ~6.3×10-6)和Yb(0.39× 10-6~0.55×10-6)以及高Sr/Y(74.5~103.4)等特点(表 2, 图 9a),具有典型的埃达克质岩石特征。斜长花岗斑岩样品在Sr/Y-Y图解(Martin, 1999)和(La/Yb)N-YbN图解(Defant et al., 1990)均投影到埃达克岩范围内(图 9),同样说明长岭子斜长花岗斑岩具有埃达克质岩石特征。此外,斜长花岗斑岩还具有富钠而贫钾(Na2O/K2O=3.59~7.24)的特征,表现出了O型埃达克岩的地球化学特征而明显不同于C型埃达克岩的富钾特征(Na2O/K2O≈1)(王强等, 2001; 张旗等, 2001)。一般来说,O型埃达克岩形成于俯冲洋壳部分熔融或者形成于贫K的加厚下地壳部分熔融(王强等, 2001; 张旗等, 2004, 2008)。在Mg#- SiO2图解和MgO-SiO2图解中(Wang et al., 2006, 图 10),样品主要落入变质玄武岩/榴辉岩部分熔融产生的熔体或者加厚下地壳形成的埃达克质岩体区域,表明斜长花岗斑岩可能是加厚下地壳部分熔融的产物。

图 9 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩Sr/Y-Y图解(a, 据Martin, 1999)和(La/Yb)N-YbN图解(b, 据Defant et al., 1990 Fig. 9 Sr/Y-Y (a, after Martin, 1999) and (La/Yb)N-YbN (b, after Defant et al., 1990) diagrams of the plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area
图 10 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩SiO2-Mg#(a)图解和SiO2-MgO图解(b)(据Wang et al., 2006 Fig. 10 SiO2-Mg# (a) diagram and SiO2-MgO diagram (b) for the plagiogranite porphyry in Changlingzi area (after Wang et al., 2006)

斜长花岗斑岩样品虽然在花岗岩构造环境判别图解(图 11)中落入火山弧区,但斜长花岗斑岩的岩石特征并不符合典型火山弧岩浆的特征。张旗等(2009)的研究表明,埃达克岩由于形成的压力大,从而强烈亏损Y、Yb、Ta和Nb等微量元素,样品则会在Rb-(Y+Nb)和Rb-(Yb+Ta)图解(Pearce et al., 1984)中向左偏移进入岛弧区域,造成构造环境的误判。因此,张旗等(2009)认为O型埃达克岩的构造环境需要从埃达克岩形成时的构造环境和与埃达克岩伴生的岩浆岩组合及其地球化学的资料等方面进行判断。

图 11 长岭子斜长花岗斑岩Nb−Y(a), Ta−Yb(b), Rb−(Y+Nb)(c)和Rb−(Yb+Ta)(d)图解(据Pearce et al., 1984, 1996;) 数据来源:三叠纪花岗岩类据李锦轶等, 2007石玉若等, 2007;张维等, 2010; 叶栩松等, 2011;张万益等, 2012;刘建峰等, 2014; 吴荣泽等, 2015;张海华等, 2015;李晓海等, 2016 Fig. 11 Nb−Y (a), Ta−Yb (b), Rb−(Y+Nb) (c) and Rb−(Yb+Ta) (d) diagram (after Pearce et al., 1984, 1996) of plagiogranite porphyries in Changlingzi area Data sources: Triassic granitoids after Li et al., 2007; Shi et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2010; Ye et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2015 and Li et al., 2016

长岭子早三叠世斜长花岗斑岩具有埃达克质岩石的特征,为加厚下地壳部分熔融的产物,指示早三叠世兴蒙地区并非弧的环境,而是处于碰撞造山环境。刘建峰等(2013)通过研究巴林右旗地区建设屯埃达克岩认为该岩体是古亚洲洋闭合后,在西伯利亚古板块和中朝板块碰撞造山初期的新生下地壳部分熔融作用的产物,这一结论也支持本文的讨论结果;此外,笔者统计了研究区区域上三叠纪广泛发育的花岗岩类地球化学数据,发现该时期的花岗岩类在Pearce构造判别图解中大部分都落入了同碰撞-后碰撞区域(图 11, 李锦轶等, 2007; 石玉若等, 2007; 田伟等, 2007; Chen et al., 2009; 张拴宏等, 2010;张维等, 2010;叶栩松等, 2011;张万益等, 2012;刘建峰等, 2014;吴荣泽等, 2015;张海华等, 2015;李晓海等, 2016),也说明在三叠纪西伯利亚板块与华北克拉通已经进入碰撞环境。由此,本文认为长岭子早三叠世斜长花岗斑岩的形成,很可能是由于古亚洲洋闭合后,西伯利亚板块与华北克拉通碰撞加厚,导致基性下地壳被转化成榴辉岩,在早三叠世软流圈地幔上涌导致榴辉岩化下地壳发生部分熔融形成中酸性岩浆,后者由于与榴辉岩残留体平衡而具有高Sr和低Y、HREE(陈斌等,2013),从而形成具有埃达克质岩石特征的岩浆岩。

6.2 对古亚洲洋闭合时间的指示意义

中亚造山带是世界最大的增生型造山带之一,形成于古亚洲洋的长期演化及其南北两侧三大板块(西伯利亚板块与华北克拉通和塔里木板块)的碰撞拼贴。关于古亚洲洋闭合时限,前人进行了大量研究,提出一系列观点,时间涵盖晚志留世至早三叠世(Tang,1990王荃,1991邵济安, 1991, 2015徐备等, 1997, 2014Xiao et al., 2003, 2009李锦轶, 2007Jian et al., 2008陈斌等, 2009石玉若等, 2014Chen et al., 2016)。近10年来,随着地质年代学的发展,大量火成岩得以确定时代归属,越来越多的学者开始倾向于接受古亚洲洋闭合于晚二叠世至早三叠世的观点(Xiao et al., 2003Chen et al., 2009Wu et al., 2011Jian et al., 2010Liu et al., 2017朱雪峰等, 2018)。

本文通过对锡林浩特—林西地区克什克腾旗长岭子斜长花岗斑岩的研究,认为其形成于碰撞造山环境,形成时代为248 Ma,指示古亚洲洋在早三叠世已经闭合,西伯利亚板块与华北克拉通已经进入碰撞造山环境。

7 结论

(1)内蒙古克什克腾旗长岭子斜长花岗斑岩的成岩年龄为(248.1±4.7)Ma(MSWD = 4.7),形成于早三叠世。

(2)长岭子斜长花岗斑岩具有高SiO2、Al2O3、Sr,低Y以及高Sr/Y的特点,显示了典型的埃达克质岩石特征,为加厚下地壳部分熔融的产物。

(3)长岭子斜长花岗斑岩形成于古亚洲洋闭合后西伯利亚板块与华北克拉通碰撞造山环境。

注释

① 内蒙古山金地质矿产勘查有限公司. 2014.内蒙古自治区克什克腾旗长岭子铅锌矿勘查2014年工作总结[R].

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