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  中国地质 2021, Vol. 48 Issue (6): 1781-1789  
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徐琳, 胡林, 肖进, 李宁, 伊海生, 赵宇. 2021. 西藏措勤盆地下二叠统—下三叠统碳酸盐岩牙形石生物地层划分[J]. 中国地质, 48(6): 1781-1789.  
Xu Lin, Hu Lin, Xiao Jin, Li Ning, Yi Haisheng, Zhao Yu. 2021. Conodont biostratigraphic division of Lower Permian-Lower Triassic carbonate rocks in Cuoqin Basin, Tibet[J]. Geology in China, 48(6): 1781-1789. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

西藏措勤盆地下二叠统—下三叠统碳酸盐岩牙形石生物地层划分
徐琳1, 胡林1, 肖进1, 李宁1, 伊海生2, 赵宇3    
1. 四川省地质矿产勘查开发局川西北地质队, 四川 绵阳 621000;
2. 成都理工大学沉积地质研究院, 四川 成都 610059;
3. 西藏自治区地质矿产勘查开发局第六地质大队, 西藏 拉萨 851400
摘要:措勤盆地下二叠统昂杰组之上广泛发育碳酸盐岩沉积,前人先后对这套碳酸盐岩进行了解体,建立了多个地层单元。本次报道剖面为盆地中的二叠系-三叠系的连续整合沉积剖面,通过牙形石研究在这套碳酸盐岩中识别出了下二叠统-下三叠统的5个牙形石带,即:Mesogondolella siciliensis-Sweetognathodus subsymmetricus带、Mesogondolella idahoensis带、Jingondolella aserrata带、Clarkina meishanensis带、Neospathodus dieneri带,并将下拉组时代修订为下二叠统空谷期-中二叠统末。
关键词下拉组    桑穷组    文布当桑组    嘎仁错组    牙形石    地质调查工程    措勤盆地    西藏    
中图分类号:P534.46;P534.51            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2021)06-1781-09
Conodont biostratigraphic division of Lower Permian-Lower Triassic carbonate rocks in Cuoqin Basin, Tibet
XU Lin1, HU Lin1, XIAO Jin1, LI Ning1, YI Haisheng2, ZHAO Yu3    
1. Northwest sichuan geological team, Sichuan bureau of exploration and development of geology and mineral resources, Mianyang 621000, Sichuan, China;
2. Institute of sedimentary geology, chengdu university of technology, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan, China;
3. The sixth geological brigade of the bureau of geology and mineral exploration and development of the Tibet autonomous region, Lhasa 851400, Tibet, China
Abstract: Carbonate sediment is widely developed above Lower Permain Angjie Formation in Coqin basin, which was disintegrated by previous research to establish several formations. Five conodont zones of Lower Permian-Lower Triassic were identified in the carbonate rocks through conodont studies, namely Mesogondolella siciliensis -Sweetognathodus subsymmetricu zone, Mesogondolella idahoensis zone, Jingondolella aserrata zone, Clarkina meishanensis zone, Neospathodus dieneri zone, and the stratigraphic age of the Xiala Formation was constrained at Lower Permian Kungurian-the later of Middle Permian.
Key words: Xiala Formation    Sangqiong Formation    Wenbudangsang Formation    Garencuo Formation    Conodont    geological survey engineering    Coqen Basin    Tibet    

1 引言

近年来,西藏藏北地区地层研究获得了较多的成果,为西藏地区地层序列厘定提供了大量素材(陈清华等,1998纪占胜等, 2006, 2007武桂春等,2007徐琳等,2017纪占胜等,2018Ji et al., 2018李英烈等,2018;唐华等,2019;白培荣等,2019李明等,2019李泽瑜等,2019石秋圆等,2021),但仍然存在较多的遗漏。

20世纪90年代,陈清华等(1998)在措勤县下东乡阿多嘎布“下拉组”灰岩上部识别出晚二叠世吴家坪期沉积,建立桑穷组,从而开启了“下拉组”的解体。近年来,纪占胜等(2006, 2007, 2018)、武桂春等(2007)先后在措勤盆地及周边地区原“下拉组”灰岩中通过牙形石鉴定,识别出了三叠系沉积,并先后建立了上二叠统文布当桑组、下三叠统嘎仁错组、中上三叠统珠龙组、上三叠统江让组,从而推翻了前人对于该地区缺失三叠系沉积的认识。然而令人遗憾的是这些建组剖面要么缺顶、要么缺底,没有一个连续完整的剖面介绍这些地层的顶底关系,并且对于解体后的下拉组的岩性组合、生物化石及地层时代划分没作更多的工作。笔者2018年在措勤盆地中北部测制了整合于下二叠统昂杰组之上的碳酸盐岩沉积地层剖面,进行了采样研究,获得了丰富的牙形石,并通过牙形石鉴定结果对这套碳酸盐岩沉积进行了详细划分,建立起下二叠统—下三叠统的完整地层序列。现将初步研究成果报道如下。

2 地层剖面介绍

本次报道的剖面位于措勤盆地中北部,尼玛县中仓乡以南约25 km的织弄(图 1),起点坐标:31°47′22.57″N,85°21′46.11″E,终点坐标:31°46′39.74″N,85°23′21.07″E。剖面下部为下石炭统永珠组、上石炭统—下二叠统拉嘎组、下二叠统昂杰组的碎屑岩连续沉积地层,本文不作介绍。本次剖面重点测制了昂杰组碎屑岩之上的碳酸盐岩地层,其上被中上侏罗统接奴群(是否为中上侏罗统接奴群有待验证)碎屑岩不整合覆盖。中仓织弄剖面自上而下(图 2)为:

图 1 研究区地质简图 1—第四系全新统;2—第四系更新统;3—芒乡组;4—典中组;5—接奴群;6—郎山组;7—多尼组;8—坚扎弄组;9—下拉组;10—拉嘎组;11—永珠组;12—晚白垩世石英闪长玢岩;13—断层;14—样品位置 Fig. 1 Geological map of the study area 1-Quaternary holocene; 2-Quaternary pleistocene; 3-Mangxiang Formation; 4-Dianzhong Formation; 5-Jienu Group; 6-Langshan Formation; 7-Duoni Formation; 8-Jianzhanong Formation; 9-Xiala Formation; 10-Laga Formation; 11-Yongzhu Formation; 12-Late Cretaceous quartz diorite porphyrite; 13-Fault; 14-The position of the sample
图 2 织弄剖面中牙形石在地层中的分布 Fig. 2 Stratigraphic distribution of conodonts at the Zhinong profile

上覆地层:中上侏罗统接奴群(J2-3jn)??

浅灰—浅灰白色中层状含铁质细—中粒岩屑石英砂岩,底部为厚约0.5 m的含砾砂岩

~~~~~~~~~~~~不整合~~~~~~~~~~~~

嘎仁错组(T1g

40. 灰—深灰色薄—中层状粉晶灰岩,产牙形石:Neospathodus dieneri Sweet, Neospathodus sp. indet. 20.18 m

39.深灰色中—厚层状微晶灰岩            37.44 m

38.深灰色厚层—块状泥晶灰岩            148.64 m

————整合————

文布当桑组(P3wb

37.灰黑色薄—中层状泥晶灰岩,见少量硅质团块            123.91 m

36.灰—深灰色厚层—块状含硅质团块微晶灰岩,岩石中见有较多的2~5 cm宽的硅质条带或团块发育。产牙形石:Clarkina sp. indet.,Clarkina meishanensis Zhang, Lai, Ding et Liu, Clarkina zhangi Mei, Iranognathus sp.,Neohindeodella nevadensis            22.08 m

35.深灰色薄—中层状硅质条带粉晶灰岩,岩石中见大量硅质条带发育。产牙形石:Clarkina sp.indet. Clarkina meishanensis Zhang, Lai, Ding et Liu,             31.80 m

34.深灰色中—厚层状泥晶灰岩夹薄层微晶灰岩、硅质条带,硅质条带一般宽3~10 cm。产牙形石:Clarkina carinataClarkina sp.indet. 13.59 m

————整合————

桑穷组(P3s

33.深灰色中—厚层状粉晶灰岩,较多的方解石细脉发育。产牙形石:Iranognathus punctatusi Wardlaw            35.29 m

————整合————

下拉组(P1-2x

32.深灰色—灰黑色中—厚层状细晶灰岩,岩石中较多的方解石细脉发育,少量硅质条带            30.33 m

31. 浅灰色中—厚层状微晶灰岩,夹硅质条带及团块。产牙形石:Jingondolella aserrataJingondolella sp.indet.            17.55 m

30.深灰色—灰黑色中—厚层状微晶灰岩,岩石中较多的方解石脉体发育            27.72 m

29.深灰色—灰黑色中—厚层状泥晶灰岩,较多的方解石细脉发育。产牙形石:Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur,M. sp., Diplognathodus movschoitshi, Lochodina sp.            11.82 m

28.浅灰色中—厚层状含生物碎屑硅质条带灰岩,生物碎屑主要为海百合茎、双壳类碎屑,硅质条带宽一般3~5 cm。产牙形石:Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur,Mesogondolella idahoensis            18.75 m

27.深灰色—灰黑色薄—中层状微晶灰岩,岩石中见较多硅质团块或条带,方解石脉体发育。产牙形石:Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur,Hindeodus minutus            34.89 m

26.灰—深灰色中—厚层状硅质条带微晶灰岩,岩石中大量硅质条带发育,宽3~10 cm不等。产牙形石:Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur,M.sp.,Mesogondolella idahoensis            13.73 m

25.浅灰色中—厚层状生物碎屑灰岩,岩石中见较多的硅质条带发育。产牙形石:Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur,M.sp.,Mesogondolella idahoensis            2.73 m

24.浅灰色中层状生物碎屑灰岩,生物碎屑含量约30%,主要为海百合茎、珊瑚等。产牙形石:Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur, M.sp.            4.91 m

————整合————

昂杰组(P1a):深灰色薄—中层状粉砂质泥岩

3 牙形石动物群及时代

本次工作选送21件样品,在其中17件样品中挑到牙形石化石,样品产出率较高。剖面自下而上可识别出5个牙形石带:Mesogondolella siciliensis-Sweetognathodus subsymmetricus带、Mesogondolella idahoensis带、Jingondolella aserrata带、Clarkina meishanensis带、Neospathodus dieneri带。

(1)Mesogondolella siciliensisSweetognathodus subsymmetricus

在下拉组底部PM03-24-WT1样品中见丰富的牙形石。鉴定有Mesogondolella siciliensis Kozur, 1975西西里中舟刺(图 3中1~7),M. sp. 中舟刺(未定种)和未定属种枝形分子等。其中:Mesogondolella siciliensis是中国南方二叠系乌拉尔统空谷阶中部Mesogondolella siciliensis-Sweetognathodus subsymmetricus带的带分子,并延伸至空谷阶上部Mesogondolella idahoensis带(Charles et al., 2003)。在贵州紫云地区见于下二叠统空谷阶中上部Mesogondolella nashuiensis带和Mesogondolella idahoensis带。但在本样品大量标本中未见M. idahoensis出现,样品层位应为Mesogondolella idahoensis带之下。

图 3 织弄剖面的牙形石显微照片(线比例尺长度代表100 μm) 1, 2, 5~9, 11~15b, 16~24, 26a, 27, 28—口视;3—反口视;4, 10, 15a, 25, 26b—侧视;1~7—西西里中舟刺,发现于PM03-24-WT1;8、9—爱达华中舟刺,发现于PM03-25-WT1;10—小欣德齿刺,发现于PM03-27-WT1;11—西西里中舟刺,发现于PM03-28-WT1;12—爱达华中舟刺, 发现于PM03-28-WT1;13、14—西西里中舟刺,发现于PM03-29-WT1;15a, 15b—莫夫肖特什双颚刺,发现于PM03-29-WT1;16—矛刺,发现于PM03-29-WT1;17、18—无锯齿金舟刺,发现于PM03-31-WT1;19—瘤状伊朗颚刺,发现于PM03-33-WT1;20—脊克拉科刺,发现于PM03-34-WT1;21、22—煤山克拉科刺,发现于PM03-35-WT1;23—煤山克拉科刺,发现于PM03-36-WT1;24—张氏克拉科刺,发现于PM03-36-WT1;25—内华达新欣德齿刺,发现于PM03-36-WT1;26a、26b—伊朗颚刺,发现于PM03-36-WT1;27—迪内尔新铲齿刺,发现于PM03-40-WT1;28—迪内尔新铲齿刺,发现于PM03-40-WT2 Fig. 3 Photomicrograph of conodontites from the Zhinong profile (The length of the line scale represents 100 μm) 1, 2, 5~9, 11~15b, 16~24, 26a, 27, 28-Oral view; 3-Excessive penetration view; 4, 10, 15a, 25, 26b-Side view; 1~7-Mesogondolella siciliensis, were found in PM03-24-WT1 samples; 8, 9-Mesogondolella idahoensis, were found in PM03-25-WT1 samples; 10-Hindeodus minutus, was found in PM03-27-WT1 sample; 11-Mesogondolella siciliensis, was found in PM03-28-WT1 sample; 12-Mesogondolella idahoensis, were found in PM03-28-WT1 sample; 13, 14-Mesogondolella siciliensis, were found in PM03-29-WT1 samples; 15a, 15b-Diplognathodus movschoitshi, were found in PM03-29-WT1 samples; 16-Lochodina sp., was found in PM03-29-WT1 sample; 17, 18-Jingondolella aserrata, were found in PM03-31-WT1 samples; 19-Iranognathus punctatus, was found in PM03-33-WT1 samples; 20-Clarkina carinata, was found in PM03-34-WT1 samples; 21, 22-Clarkina meishanensis, were found in PM03-35-WT1 samples; 23-Clarkina meishanensis, was found in PM03-36-WT1 samples; 24-Clarkina zhangi Mei, was found in PM03-36-WT1 samples; 25-Neohindeodella nevadensis, was found in PM03-36-WT1 samples; 26a, 26b-Iranognathus sp., were found in PM03-36-WT1 samples; 27-Neospathodus dieneri, was found in PM03-40-WT1 samples; 28-Neospathodus dieneri, was found in PM03-40-WT2 samples

下拉组底部以Mesogondolella siciliensis大量出现和未见M. idahoensis出现为特征,确定剖面24层相当Mesogondolella siciliensis-Sweetognathodus subsymmetricus带,年代相当中国和国际二叠系乌拉尔统空谷阶中部。

(2)Mesogondolella idahoensis

PM03-25-WT1~PM03-29-WT1共5个样品,均见牙形石。鉴定有Mesogondolella idahoensis (Youngquist, Hawly et miller, 1975) 爱达华中舟刺(图 3中8、9、12),M. siciliensis Kozur, 1975西西里中舟刺(图 3中11、13、14),M. sp. 中舟刺(未定种),Diplognathodus movschoitshi莫夫肖特什双颚刺(图 3中15a、15b),Hindeodus minutus (Ellison, 1941) 小欣德齿刺(图 3中10),Lochodina sp. 矛刺未定种(图 3中10)和未定属种枝形分子等。其中:Mesogondolella idahoensis是中国和国际乌拉尔统空谷阶上部的带化石(王成源等,2016),广见于北美洲、欧洲、亚洲等地区,还见于措勤狮泉河羊尾山剖面昂杰组和左左路线剖面下拉组(纪占胜等,2007)。Mesogondolella siciliensis是由下伏地层延伸上来的重要分子。Diplognathodus movschoitshi见于贵州紫云地区下叠系统空谷阶Mesogondolella nashuiensis带。

(3)Jingondolella aserrata

PM03-31-WT1样品1个,见少量牙形石。鉴定有Jingondolella aserrata (Bender et behnken, 1979) 无锯齿金舟刺(图 3中17,18),J. sp. 金舟刺(未定种)和枝形分子等。其中:Jingondolella aserrata(=Mesogondolella aserrata)是中国和国际瓜德鲁普统沃德阶Mesogondolella aserrata带的带分子(Mei et al., 1998)。

本样品以Jingondolella aserrata出现为特征,确定31层为Mesogondolella aserrata带,年代相当我国和国际瓜德鲁普统沃德阶同名带。

(4)Clarkina meishanensis

PM03-35-WT1~PM03-36-WT1样品2个,见少量牙形石。鉴定有Clarkina meishanensis Zhang, Lai, Ding et Liu, 1995煤山克拉科刺(图 3中21~23),C. zhangi Mei, 1998张氏克拉科刺(图 3中24),C. sp. 克拉科刺(未定种),Iranognathus sp. 伊朗颚刺(未定种)(图 3中26a, 26b),Neohindeodella nevadensis (Mullre, 1956) 内华达新欣德刺(图 3中25)和枝形分子等。其中:Clarkina meishanensis是中国和国际乐平统长兴阶顶部Clarkina meishanensis带的带分子(王成源等,2016)。Clarkina zhangi是中国南方乐平统长兴阶上部Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi带(或Clarkina yini带)的带分子(Mei et al., 1998)。此种与C. meishanensis同时出现,表现为Clarkina meishanensis带的特征。Neohindeodella nevadensis是中国南方上二叠统至下三叠统的常见分子。

(5)Neospathodus dieneri

在剖面第40层的两个样品(PM03-40-WT1、PM03-40-WT2)中见少量牙形石。鉴定有Neospathodus dieneri Sweet, 1970迪内尔新铲齿刺(图 3中27,28),N. sp. 新铲齿刺(未定种)和枝形分子等。其中:Neospathodus dieneri是中国和国际下三叠统印度阶台地边缘相区Neospathodus dieneri带(或台地相区Paragondodella erromera-Neospathodus dieneri带和盆地相区Neospathodus dieneri-Neospathodus kummeli带)的带分子。广见于亚洲和北美洲,在中国见于西藏、四川、贵州、广西、云南等地区(王成源等,2016),还见于措勤江让乡敌布错北缘下三叠统嘎仁错组(武桂春等,2007)。

4 地层划分讨论 4.1 下拉组(P1-2x

下拉组原始定义指整合于昂杰组碎屑岩之上的大套灰岩地层,时代定为中二叠世,其在区域上广泛分布。然而近年来众多学者纷纷在这套碳酸盐岩地层上部识别出晚二叠世—晚三叠世沉积,并且建立了多个地层单元。那么上二叠统之下的灰岩层位,是否全部是中二叠世的沉积呢?本次的牙形石鉴定成果给出了否定的答案。在这大套灰岩的下部,识别出来了大量的早二叠世空谷阶的牙形石,其中包括空谷阶中部Mesogondolella siciliensis-Sweetognathodus subsymmetricus带和空谷阶上部Mesogondolella idahoensis带的带化石。其上见有中二叠统沃德阶Jingondolella aserrata带的带分子。由此可见,下拉组的地层时代并非只是中二叠世,还向下延伸到早二叠世晚期。

4.2 桑穷组(P3s

措勤盆地上二叠统已建立有吴家坪期桑穷组、长兴期文布当桑组。其中桑穷组由陈清华等于1998年建立,主要岩性为灰色厚层含燧石团块生物碎屑微晶灰岩,浅灰色厚层生物灰岩、礁灰岩。富含有孔虫、珊瑚、海绵、苔藓虫、层孔虫、头足、腹足、腕足及钙藻等化石。以出现层孔虫与珊瑚构成的点礁为特征与下伏下拉组分开,时代定为晚二叠世吴家坪期(陈清华等,1998)。然而桑穷组自建立以来几乎未被采用过。纪占胜等(2018)所厘定的措勤盆地地层序列中,因未在同一剖面中别出吴家坪阶和长兴阶的地层和古生物化石,也没有采用桑穷组。本次剖面33层中发现Iranognathus punctatus Wardlaw(瘤状伊朗颚刺)(图 3中19)此种多见国外相当层位的乐平统吴家坪阶,相似川东北地区上二叠统吴家坪组上部的I. Tarazi梅仕龙等,1994)和广西来宾地区上二叠统吴家坪组的I. cf. Tarazi王成源,1998),层位大致相当。

然而不同于建组剖面的是,本剖面上33层未见大化石发育,属于斜坡相沉积,而有别于浅水台地相的富含蜓类化石和珊瑚化石的碳酸盐岩(桑穷组建组剖面)。但也与文布当桑组富含硅质结核、硅质条带的灰岩明显不同。因此,本文暂且将这个差异搁置,将本次剖面上识别出的吴家坪期沉积(33层)仍划归为桑穷组。

4.3 文布当桑组(P3wb

文布当桑组是由Wu et al.(2014)在革吉县文布当桑乡建立,指上二叠统海相碳酸盐岩地层,岩性主要为灰色—深灰色中薄层状含燧石结核或燧石层的碳酸盐岩。建组剖面上文布当桑组与上覆下三叠统整合接触,底界不清楚,地层时代限定为晚二叠世晚期的长兴期。本文介绍的织弄剖面为该套地层建组以来的首个顶、底齐全的剖面报道。本剖面上岩性特征与建组剖面相似,以灰岩中大量的燧石结核、燧石条带为特征。其中产牙形石:Clarkina carinataClarkina meishanensisC. zhangi Mei、Neohindeodella nevadensis等。其中Clarkina carinata广见于亚洲和北美洲乐平统长兴阶上部至下三叠统印度阶中部,在中国南方见于上二叠统长兴组上部至下三叠统飞仙关组,还见于措勤江让乡敌布错北缘嘎仁错组。值得说明的是,武桂春等(2007)在嘎仁错组建立了下三叠统Clarkina carinata牙形石带,但在本剖面C. carinata产于C. meishanensis带之下,故本文认为,以Clarkina carinata出现(未见底,可能不是首现层位)建立的下三叠统Clarkina carinata带可能不妥。

4.4 嘎仁错组(T1-2g

嘎仁错组是纪占胜等(2007)在措勤县敌不错北侧新建的岩石地层,以不发育硅质结核和硅质条带的灰岩为特征,下部发育砾屑灰岩,时代为早三叠世印度期至中三叠世安尼期末期(武桂春等,2007)。本次剖面仅在40层中发现了早三叠世印度阶的牙形石Neospathodus dieneri Sweet。其上被中上侏罗统接奴群(是否为接奴群有待验证)碎屑岩不整合覆盖,缺失敌布错地区发育的中—上三叠统珠龙组和上三叠统江让组。

由此推测,在三叠纪早期,在位置较高的比较封闭的局限台地浅水区,如木纠错、纳木错、仲巴县仁多地区、狮泉河地区沉积白云岩地层(程立人等,2002武桂春等, 2017, 2018),措勤盆地敌布错地区、文布当桑、中仓织弄等地处于台地坳陷区,沉积灰岩地层。

5 结论

牙形石生物地层学研究表明,尼玛中仓织弄剖面上,昂杰组碎屑岩之上的碳酸盐岩采样层段的时代为早二叠世的空谷期至早三叠世的印度期。可以将该碳酸盐岩地层自下而上划分为5个牙形石带(组合带),即:Mesogondolella siciliensis-Sweetognathodus subsymmetricus带、Mesogondolella idahoensis带、Jingondolella aserrata带、Clarkina meishanensis带、Neospathodus dieneri带。其中,下拉组的时代修订为早二叠世空谷期至中二叠世末,桑穷组采样层段的时代为晚二叠世吴家坪期,文布当桑组采样层段的时代为晚二叠世长兴期。

致谢: 本文化石鉴定由华北油田研究院张放老师完成,并经南京古生物研究所相关专家复核,两位审稿专家提出了宝贵修改意见和建议,在此一并表示感谢。

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