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  中国地质 2021, Vol. 48 Issue (6): 1924-1934  
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徐增连, 李建国, 朱强, 里宏亮, 曾辉, 魏佳林, 张博, 曹民强, 洪波. 2021. 开鲁盆地钱家店凹陷早白垩世义县组孢粉组合及其古气候演变[J]. 中国地质, 48(6): 1924-1934.  
Xu Zenglian, Li Jianguo, Zhu Qiang, Li Hongliang, Zeng Hui, Wei Jialin, Zhang Bo, Cao Minqiang, Hong Bo. 2021. Early Cretaceous spore and pollen assemblage from the Yixian Formation in the Qianjiadian Depression of Kailu Basin and its paleoclimate evolution[J]. Geology in China, 48(6): 1924-1934. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

开鲁盆地钱家店凹陷早白垩世义县组孢粉组合及其古气候演变
徐增连1,2, 李建国3, 朱强1,2, 里宏亮4, 曾辉1,2, 魏佳林1,2, 张博1,2, 曹民强4, 洪波4    
1. 中国地质调查局天津地质调查中心, 天津 300170;
2. 中国地质调查局铀矿地质重点实验室, 天津 300170;
3. 自然资源实物地质资料中心, 河北 三河 065201;
4. 辽河石油勘探局新能源开发公司, 辽宁 盘锦 124010
摘要:研究白垩纪植物演替与气候变化对认识现今生态环境形成过程与演变具有重要意义。开鲁盆地义县组孢粉学的研究不仅丰富了该地区早白垩世孢粉学资料,也为该地区早白垩世地层划分与对比提供了依据。通过对开鲁盆地东北部钱家店凹陷钻孔QIV-65-136底部泥岩样品分析,获得了丰富的孢粉化石,并建立了Cyathidites-Pinuspollenites-Protoconiferus组合。根据典型分子时代分布、重要种属含量上的变化及横向组合对比,确定其地质时代为早白垩世早期,层位相当于义县组。孢粉植物群反映的植被景观为在湖盆的周围山地生长着松科高大乔木,伴有罗汉松科、杉科及少量苏铁科、南美杉科、掌鳞杉科等植物,林下、湖岸地区生长着桫椤科、紫萁科及莎草蕨科等蕨类植物。整体面貌以针叶植物为主,所处的气候环境为湿润的暖温带-亚热带。
关键词早白垩世    义县组    孢粉组合    古气候    矿产勘查工程    开鲁盆地    钱家店凹陷    辽宁    
中图分类号:P52            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2021)06-1924-11
Early Cretaceous spore and pollen assemblage from the Yixian Formation in the Qianjiadian Depression of Kailu Basin and its paleoclimate evolution
XU Zenglian1,2, LI Jianguo3, ZHU Qiang1,2, LI Hongliang4, ZENG Hui1,2, WEI Jialin1,2, ZHANG Bo1,2, CAO Minqiang4, HONG Bo4    
1. Tianjin Centre, China Geological Survey, Tianjin 300170, China;
2. Key Laboratory of Uranium Geology, China Geological Survey, Tianjin 300170, China;
3. Core and Samples Center of Land and Resources, China Geological Survey, Sanhe 065201, Hebei, China;
4. Development Company of New Energy Sources of Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau, CNPC, Panjin 124010, Liaoning, China
Abstract: The study of plant succession and climate change in Cretaceous is of great significance for the understanding of formation and evolution of the present ecological environment. The study on the palynology from the Yixian Formation can provide palynology data and lay the basis on Early Cretaceous stratigraphic classification and correlation in the northeastern area of Kailu basin. Based on the analysis of sporo-pollen fossils of 47 species from 39 genera recognized from the bottom of well QIV-65-136 in the Qianjiadian depression, Kailu Basin, the Cyathidites-Pinuspollenites-Protoconiferus assemblage was established. According to the age range of typical species, content change on key species and horizontal contrast, this assemblage should be dated as the early Early Creataceous, the horizon is equivalent to the Yixian Formation. The palynoflora shows the Coniferales plants on the high elevation mountain around the lake, accompanied by Podocarpaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cycadaceae, Araucariaceae and Cheirolepidiaceae plants, the fern such as Osmundaceae, Cyatheaceae, Schizaeaceae plants growing under the trees near the lake. Vegetation is occupied by coniferous, representing a humid temperate to subtropical zone.
Key words: Early Creataceous    Yixian Formation    Sporo-pollen assemblage    paleoclimate    mineral exploration engineering    Kailu Basin    Qianjiadian Depression    Liaoning    

1 引言

白垩纪(145~65 Ma)因其全球海平面(Haq et al., 1987Stoll and Schrag, 1996Miller et al., 2005)、大气CO2及平均温度均比现今高而被认为是距今最近、跨越时间最长的典型“温室地球”时期(Herman and Spicer, 1996Berner and Kothavala, 2001Gradstein et al., 2004Keller, 2008杜宝霞等, 2010Crowley and Kim, 2013),研究白垩纪生态环境对认识现今环境格局的形成及未来演变具有重要的参考价值。松辽盆地是白垩纪陆相沉积地层发育的地区,蕴含大量典型的古生物化石,是研究早白垩世陆相古气候和古环境变化、生物演化的重要地区(Chen and Chang, 1994Feng et al., 2010; Deng et al., 2013张德军等,2019白静等, 2020商斐等, 2020徐増连等,2021)。

义县组岩性为一套基性—中基性—中性—中酸性陆相火山喷发岩系,在其喷发活动间歇期形成了7个规模不等的河湖相沉积夹层,以产出大量精美的热河生物群珍稀化石而闻名于世。从20世纪20年代至今,已有众多的古生物学家对义县组做了大量的研究工作,如生物大化石(Hou et al., 1995季强和姬书安, 1996, 1997汪筱林等,1998)、孢粉化石(张立君等,1985中国地质科学院地质研究所地层组, 1989Li and Liu, 1994丁秋红等, 2003a, b丁秋红和张立东,2004Li and Batten, 2007黎文本,2010崔莹等,2015)和古气候学等(王思恩,1999; 丁秋红等, 2003a, b闫义等,2003丁秋红和张立东, 2004)。然而关于义县组的研究仍存在几个重要的问题:(1)研究区域局限,仅集中在辽西地区;(2)义县组的时代是晚侏罗世还是早白垩世一直存在争论,目前主要有晚侏罗世(王思恩, 1998)、早白垩世(李佩贤等,1993)、晚侏罗世—早白垩世(王五力等, 2003)以及晚白垩世(孙肖等, 2017)四种观点;(3)前人的研究大多集中在生物大化石方面,孢粉微体化石方面研究虽在早期取得了一定成果,但近年来鲜有数据更新和更深入研究,因此数据稍显不足。本文通过对开鲁盆地钱家店地区义县组孢粉化石的鉴定和分析,精确划分孢粉化石组合及特征,推断其地层时代,同时探讨植被类型和古气候演化趋势,对本地区生物地层研究及与邻区对比具有十分重要的意义。

2 区域地质与地层概况

开鲁盆地位于松辽盆地西南部,面积约3.32×104 km2,是中国北方较大型中生代盆地。自南东向北西依次由哲东南隆起、哲中坳陷、舍伯吐隆起、陆家堡坳陷和西缘斜坡5个二级构造单元构成。钱家店凹陷位于开鲁盆地东北部,属于哲东南隆起的次级负向构造单元,呈NNE向窄条状展布,面积约为1280 km2图 1a),是砂岩型铀矿勘探的重点区块(汤庆四等, 2016)。开鲁盆地以前震旦纪花岗片麻岩和石炭纪—二叠纪变质岩系为基底,盖层发育的主要阶段是白垩纪,其累计最大厚度达10 km。

图 1 研究区地质略图(a,据罗毅等,2012荣辉等,2016修改)与地层综合柱状图(b,据陈为佳等,2014修改) Fig. 1 Geological map (a, modified from Luo et al., 2012; Rong et al., 2016) and comprehensive column (b, modified from Chen et al., 2014) of the study area

开鲁盆地白垩纪地层的研究工作始于20世纪50年代后期。60—70年代中华人民共和国地质矿产部、吉林石油集团、大庆油田勘探开发研究院等先后在该地区开展的物化探及浅孔钻探工作,揭示了上白垩统地层序列。20世纪80年代以来,辽河石油勘探局先后在开鲁盆地开展了大面积的地球物理勘探和数十口深井钻探,探明了下白垩统地层序列,并在其中获得了丰富的早白垩世生物地层方面的宝贵资料。许坤等(1995)综合利用古生物、钻井、地震剖面和古地磁资料,建立了开鲁盆地晚中生代地层层序,这一成果被后人广泛采用;此后相继又有很多学者(王仁厚等, 1999陈丕基, 2000孙革和郑少林, 2000吴炳伟, 2007)对区内的地层进行了研究。盆地内晚白垩世生物地层特征与松辽盆地同时期地层一致;早白垩世地层则更接近开鲁盆地南部辽西阜新盆地生物地层特征,尤其见有标准的热河生物群化石,据此,辽河油田直接采用了辽西地区地层名称。区内白垩纪地层自下而上依次包括下白垩统义县组(K1yx)、九佛堂组(K1jf)、沙海组(K1sh)、阜新组(K1fx)和泉头组(K2q)以及上白垩统青山口组(K2qn)、姚家组(K2y)、嫩江组(K2n)、四方台组(K2s)、明水组(K2m)(图 1b)。地层中化石丰富,已发现了介形类、腹足类、双壳类、孢粉、沟鞭藻、鱼类、轮藻、叶肢介等8个门类的化石(吴炳伟, 2006, 2007)。本文报道的孢粉材料主要获自钱家店凹陷钻孔QIV-65-136,通过对其孢粉组合特征和古气候进行了探讨,为本区地层划分对比、时代归属及生物群演化提供了重要的参考材料。

3 研究材料与方法

本文研究的孢粉化石材料取自钱家店凹陷QIV-65-136井底部(深度411.5~389.4 m)灰、黑色泥岩和粉砂质泥岩层中(图 2),共采集样品4块。孢粉化石的处理和鉴定委托中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所卢辉楠研究员团队完成。孢粉分析方法采用盐酸-氢氟酸处理法。具体操作步骤:(1)取20~50 g样品,在研钵中研磨至粒径为小于0.5 mm的颗粒;(2)用体积浓度10%的稀盐酸浸泡(稍淹没样品),充分搅拌,去除钙质;(3)加满清水,静置3~4 h,洗至中性;(4)徐徐加入250 mL氢氟酸,充分搅拌,放置5~7 d;(5)加水,洗至中性;(6)过筛(180 μm),去除大颗粒,沉淀;(7)留300 mL左右放入离心杯,离心去水(3000 r/5 min);(8)加浓盐酸(一般150 mL),置于电炉上加热(2 h),至样品漂浮或液体澄清;(9)加水水洗2次,至中性;(10)洗样:重液分离和过筛法。对化石丰富的样品,通常至少统计150粒,大多>200粒;相对丰富的样品则统计到100粒,含量较少的样品则通过增加玻片数达到统计数量。化石鉴定统计和照相都在Zeiss Axio Scope A1显微镜下进行。

图 2 开鲁盆地钱家店凹陷QIV-65-136井孢粉化石分布 Fig. 2 Distribution of spores and pollen from well QIV-65-136 in Qianjiadian depression
4 孢粉组合面貌

4块样品中的孢粉化石及其百分含量见表 1

表 1 开鲁盆地钱家店凹陷QIV-65-136井下白垩统孢粉化石百分含量统计 Table 1 Statistics of the Lower Cretaceous spores and pollen from well QIV-65-136 in Qianjiadian depression
4.1 孢粉化石组合

通过对钱家店凹陷QIV-65-136井4件孢粉样品处理、分析和鉴定,每块样品中均发现了丰富的孢粉化石(表 1图 3),共计39属47种。组合中裸子植物花粉含量最高,占整个组合的57.11%~91.73%,平均75.05%。裸子植物花粉中以松科的新型双气囊花粉为主,比如Abietineaepollenites/Pinuspollenites含量突出,为7.59%~60.0%,平均29.91%,其他具气囊花粉如Cedripites(0~3.16%),Piceaepollenites(0~ 5.45%),Abiespollenites(0~0.61%),Keteleeriaepollenites(0~1.21%),Podocarpidites(1.21%~ 3.16%)和Disacciatrileti(0~6.02%);其次是气囊与本体分化不好的松柏类以较高含量出现,为3.63%~ 35.35%,平均16.38%,包括Protoconiferus(0~ 26.32%),Protopinus(0.63% ~6.16%),Piceites(0~ 5.06%),Pseudopicea(0~4.03%)和Protopodocarpus(0~0.24%);无气囊的松柏类花粉很少,如Taxodiaceaepollenites hiatus占0~14.56%,平均4.47%,Psophosphaera占0~11.39%,平均2.85%;此外,环沟类花粉如掌鳞杉科的Classopollis,包括C. annulatusC. triangulusC. parvus和单沟类花粉如苏铁科的Cycadopites,包括C. minorC. granulantus在组合中连续出现,但含量不占据主导地位。

图 3 开鲁盆地钱家店凹陷QIV-65-136井代表性孢粉化石 1~4—三角孢属;5~7—紫萁孢属;8,9—希指蕨孢属;10,11—有孔孢属;12,13—桫椤孢属;14—弓脊孢属;15—石松粉属;16—假云杉粉属;17—松粉属;18—油杉粉属;19—原始松粉属;20,21—罗汉松粉属;22—苏铁粉属;23—克拉梭粉属;24—同心粉属;25—广口粉属;26—原始松柏粉属 Fig. 3 Representative spores and pollen from well QIV-65-136 in Qianjiadian depression 1-4-Deltoidospora sp.; 5~7-Osmundacidites sp.; 8, 9-Schizaeoisporites sp.; 10, 11-Foraminisporis sp.; 12, 13-Cyathidites sp.; 14-Retusotriletes sp.; 15-Lycopodiumsporites sp.; 16-Pseudopicea sp.; 17-Pinuspollenites sp.; 18-Keteleeriaepollenites sp.; 19-Protopinus sp.; 20, 21-Podocarpidites sp.; 22-Cycadopites sp.; 23-Classopollis sp.; 24-Concentrisporites sp.; 25-Chasmatosporites sp.; 26-Protoconiferus sp.

蕨类植物孢子含量为8.27% ~42.89%,平均24.95%。其中桫椤科的Cyathidites在蕨类中含量最高,含量为6.96% ~21.56%,平均9.86%,包括C. minor;其次为莎草蕨科的Schizaeoisporites,含量为0~12.02%,平均3.00%,所见种主要为S. brevis;紫萁科的Osmundacidites含量为0~9.71%,平均3.33%,见O. parvus;此外,还有少量SphagnumsporitesDeltoidosporaGranulatisporitesAcanthotriletesLophotriletesConverrucosisporitesPunctatisporitesCyclogranisporitesApiculatisporisVerrucosisporitesRetusotriletesLaevigatosporitesLycopodiumsporitesForaminisporis等,在组合中连续出现但含量不高。

在本组合中未见被子植物花粉。

4.2 地质时代

上述孢粉化石可称为Cyathidites-Pinuspollenites-Protoconiferus组合。Protoconiferus含量为0~26.32%,Cyathidites含量为6.96% ~21.56%,Pinuspollenites含量为7.59%~60.0%,它们组成当前组合的优势分子。组合特征是裸子植物花粉多于蕨类孢子,其中具气囊的松柏类花粉很丰富,含量一般超过50%,而无气囊的松柏类花粉不多,尤其是Classopollis很少,最高含量为4.85%;孢子中CyathiditesGranulatisporitesOsmundacidites经常出现;早白垩世特征分子Foraminisporis也有一定含量。

Foraminisporis是白垩纪早期的特征属,侏罗纪迄今未见及,最晚延至古近纪。该属最早由Krutzsch(1959)在德国下白垩统发现,其后在俄罗斯、蒙古及北美下白垩统均有记录(Bolkhovitina, 1961),在我国主要见于早白垩世,该属是东北地区下白垩统的常见分子(余静贤, 1986; 中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 1986)。

中国晚侏罗世时以耐干旱的掌鳞杉科花粉Classopollis占统治地位,通常含量在50%以上为其特征(王思恩等, 1982)。早白垩世,在中国北方普遍衰落,即一进入白垩纪转入少量分布(地质矿产部成都地质矿产研究所, 1983; 天津地质矿产研究所,1984尚玉珂, 1991)。例如:在内蒙古武川盆地晚侏罗世为33.0%~76.9%,早白垩世为13.0% ~24.0%(赵传本, 1987);在英国南部提塘阶孢粉组合中Classopollis含量也很高,它与杉科无口器花粉共占孢粉总和的70%~90%(Norris, 1977)。本组合中Classopollis含量较少,不足5%,呈现出中国北方早白垩世特点,应排除其属于晚侏罗世的可能。

Schizaeoisporites在世界各地几乎都在白垩纪,尤其在早白垩世晚期以后大量繁盛,到古近纪已很少见,中国晚白垩世早、中期地层中均很丰富(宋之琛, 1986; 高瑞祺等,1999)。而在本段中Schizaeoisporites仅少量或个别出现,推断本组合应属于早白垩世早中期。

此外,具气囊的原始松柏类花粉在中国北方地区晚侏罗世和早白垩世早、中期地层中有相当的含量,早白垩世晚期急剧衰退(主要指阿普特期和阿尔必期)至晚白垩世灭绝(高瑞褀等, 1999),在本组合中古老松柏类也有较高的含量。从整个孢粉组合来看,组合中存在一些早白垩世较典型分子,有些还是较早期类型,在一些重要属种的含量上,也呈现出早白垩世较早期特征。综合考虑本组合应属于早白垩世早中期。

4.3 孢粉组合对比

目前,已有许多学者对开鲁盆地早白垩世孢粉组合特征进行过研究(李凤霞,2005吴炳伟,2006)。李凤霞(2005)系统研究了开鲁盆地陆家堡坳陷早白垩世阜新组孢粉化石,建立Cicatricosisporites- Laevigatosporites- Tricolpopollenites组合;吴炳伟(2006)通过对开鲁盆地20余口探井1500余块样品进行分析,建立了3个早白垩世孢粉组合自下而上为九佛堂组Cicatricosisporites-Concavissimisporites- Classopollis组合、沙海组Cicatricosisporites- Abdiverrucospora- Piceaepollenites组合、以及阜新组Cicatricosisporites-Laevigatosporites-Pilosisporites-Asteropollis组合。王大宁等(2016)分析冀北—辽西地区侏罗—白垩纪之交期孢粉植物群的地层分布,自下而上依次为大北沟组下部Piceites-Podocarpidites-Schizaeoisporites组合、大北沟组上部Cicatricosisporites-Luanpingspora-Jugella组合、义县组Piceaepollenites- Densoisporites-Cicatricosisporites-Aeguitriradites组合、九佛堂组Piceaepollenites-Cicatricosisporites-Concavissimisporites组合、沙海组Liaoxisporites-Pilosisporites-Classopollis组合、阜新组下部Pilosisporites-Appendicisporites-Cicatricosisporites- Triporoletes组合、阜新组上部Deltoidospora- Cicatricosisporites- Appendicisporites组合。认为海金沙科孢子,尤其是Cicatricosisporites的含量在大北沟组上部和义县组下部仅少量出现,从九佛堂组开始,其含量逐渐增加。本文研究层位的孢粉组合中未出现Cicatricosisporites,且海金砂科分子类型和含量很少,所以本文孢粉组合的时代可能早于九佛堂组。

开鲁盆地与辽宁西部、内蒙古二连盆地经纬度相差不大,处于同一气候带和植物区系(黎文本,1983Li and Liu, 1994),孢粉组合面貌有许多相似之处,所以就横向上对比看,本文报道的孢粉植物群与辽宁西部义县组(张立君等,1985;黎文本和刘兆生,1999)、二连盆地阿尔善组(中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所,1986)孢粉组合有很大的相似性。主要表现为:(1)三者均以裸子植物花粉占优势,尤以双气囊松柏类花粉为多;(2)Classopollis的含量很低;(3)早期被子植物花粉零星出现或未见。不同点是:辽西地区义县组中与海金砂科孢子有关的孢子居第二位,见少量Cicatricosisporites,另有AequitriraditesCouperisporitesTriporoletes等白垩纪典型分子;二连盆地阿尔善组中早白垩世特征分子CicatricosisporitesKlukisporitesAequitriradites等仅个别或少量出现。当前的孢粉组合中早白垩世特征分子种类不如二连盆地和辽西地区丰富,可能与发现孢粉化石的样品数量少有关。

5 古气候探讨

合适的温度和湿度是植物生长的必要条件,影响植物生长的最主要的因素就是气候因素,因此,植物生态与气候有着最为密切的关系。关于早白垩世最早期(义县组)沉积时期的古气候,许多学者已进行过详细的研究:黎文本和刘兆生(1999)认为辽西义县组沉积时期属于温湿气候;丁秋红和张立东(2004)认为辽西北票义县组属于湿润的亚热带—暖温带的气候环境;黎文本(2010)认为辽西义县金家沟义县组气候温暖湿润。开鲁盆地钱家店凹陷QIV-65-136井早白垩世早期孢粉植物群以裸子植物松柏类占优势,主要成分除松科(15.19% ~ 69.7%)和原始松柏类(4.85%~38.85%)外,还有罗汉松科、掌鳞杉科、南美杉科和杉科;苏铁属仅占2.42%~9.77%;蕨类植物次之,主要成分有桫椤科(0~21.56%),紫萁科(0~9.72%)、莎草蕨科(0~ 12.03%)和卷柏科;未见被子植物。

从孢粉组合反映的植物群生态环境看,松科植物大都为常绿针叶乔木,稀为灌木,广布于北半球温带,其中云杉属、松属多分布于亚热带山地;原始松柏类为常绿针叶乔木,广布于北半球温带湿润的环境中;罗汉松科为常绿乔木或灌木,主要分布在南部球亚热带—热带地区;掌鳞杉科是亚热带耐干旱炎热的乔木或灌木,生长于高地斜坡(Vakhrameev, 1991王伏雄等,1995; 江德昕和王永栋,2002邓胜徽,2007);苏铁属主要产于热带和亚热带地区。桫椤科桫椤属为树蕨,多生于热带和亚热带阴湿谷和湖河沿岸的低海拔地形;莎草蕨科主要分布于南半球和赤道地区,生长在干燥贫瘠的土壤上;卷柏科分布于亚热带和温带,生长于林下或溪边湿地(中国科学院北京植物研究所古植物研究室孢粉组, 1976)。紫萁科为中型植物,少有树形,分布于热带、亚热带或温带沼泽湿地、林下溪边或阴湿的山谷(中国科学院北京植物研究所古植物研究室孢粉组, 1976)。

纵观全局,可以推测早白垩世早期的植被景观为:在湖盆周围的山地上生长着松科高大乔木,伴有罗汉松科、杉科及少量苏铁科、南美杉科、掌鳞杉科等植物,林下、湖岸地区生长着桫椤科、紫萁科及莎草蕨科等蕨类植物。古气候为湿润的暖温带—亚热带气候。

6 结论

(1)通过对孢粉化石属种的分析,在剖面中建立了义县组Cyathidites-Pinuspollenites-Protoconiferus孢粉组合带。

(2)根据典型分子时代分布、重要种属含量上的变化及孢粉组合横向对比,表明义县组形成时代为早白垩世早期。

(3)义县组植被类型反映暖温带—亚热带气候,指示温暖湿润带的气候环境。

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