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  中国地质 2022, Vol. 49 Issue (2): 455-471  
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唐文龙, 付超, 李俊建, 彭翼, 宋立军, 张彤, 侯占国, 党智财. 2022. 华北地区钼矿资源特征及成矿规律研究[J]. 中国地质, 49(2): 455-471.  
Tang Wenlong, Fu Chao, Li Junjian, Peng Yi, Song Lijun, Zhang Tong, Hou Zhanguo, Dang Zhicai. 2022. Resources characteristics of molybdenum deposits and their regional metallogeny regularity in North China[J]. Geology in China, 49(2): 455-471. (in Chinese with English abstract).  

华北地区钼矿资源特征及成矿规律研究
唐文龙1,2, 付超1,2, 李俊建1,2, 彭翼3, 宋立军4, 张彤5, 侯占国6, 党智财1,2    
1. 中国地质调查局天津地质调查中心,天津 300170;
2. 华北地质科技创新中心,天津 300170;
3. 河南省地质调查院,河南 郑州 450007;
4. 河北省地质调查院,河北 石家庄 050081;
5. 内蒙古自治区地质调查院,内蒙古 呼和浩特 010020;
6. 山西省地质调查院,山西 太原 030006
摘要[研究目的] 钼(Mo)作为战略性矿产资源,查明华北地区钼矿资源,总结成矿规律,提出找矿方向,对研究区钼矿勘查部署具有重要意义。[研究方法] 本文以研究区98处钼矿床(点)资料为基础,通过对钼矿资源禀赋、成矿特征、预测类型的梳理,系统剖析与总结对研究区钼矿床成矿时空规律、物质来源、控矿要素等,进而分析资源潜力,提出找矿方向。[研究结果] 华北地区钼矿可以划分为4种成矿类型和4种预测类型,总结了钼矿成矿规律,提出了找矿方向。[结论] 钼矿床成矿时代主要集中于古元古代、二叠纪—三叠纪和侏罗纪—白垩纪,并以侏罗纪—白垩纪为最主要的成矿时期,古元古代豫陕陆缘裂谷带,晚古生代—早中生代华北陆块南、北缘陆缘活动带和晚中生代岩浆弧是钼矿床主要产出部位,成矿类型以斑岩型、矽卡型为主,成矿物质主要来源于壳源或壳幔混源,成矿流体以岩浆水为主,并有后期天水混入,提出了华北陆块北缘西段河北平泉—内蒙赤峰—凉城一带、东秦岭—大别汝阳—嵩县—栾川一带和黑鹰山—亚干地区成矿条件优越,找矿潜力巨大。
关键词钼矿    成矿规律    预测类型    华北地区    矿产勘查工程    
中图分类号:P618.65            文献标志码:A             文章编号:1000-3657(2022)02-0455-17
Resources characteristics of molybdenum deposits and their regional metallogeny regularity in North China
TANG Wenlong1,2, FU Chao1,2, LI Junjian1,2, PENG Yi3, SONG Lijun4, ZHANG Tong5, HOU Zhanguo6, DANG Zhicai1,2    
1. Tianjin Center, China Geology Survey CGS, Tianjin, 300170, China;
2. North China Center of Geoscience Innovation, Tianjin, 300170;
3. Henan Institute of Geological Survey, Zhengzhou 450007, Henan, China;
4. Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081 Hebei, China;
5. Inner Mongolia Institute of Geological Survey, Hohhot 010020, Inner Mongolia, China;
6. Shanxi Institute of Geological Survey, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, China
Abstract: This paper is the result of mineral exploration engineering.
[Objective] Molybdenum (Mo) is a strategic mineral resource. It is of great significance to identify molybdenum ore resources in North China, summarize the metallogenic laws, and put forward the prospecting direction, which is of great significance for the exploration and deployment of molybdenum ore in the study area. [Methods] Based on the data of 98 molybdenum deposits, the authors systematically analyzed and summarized the metallogenic epoch regularities, spatial regularities, material sources and ore-controlling factors in the study area through combing the resources endowment, metallogenic characteristics and prediction types of molybdenum deposits, then analyzed the resource potential and put forward the prospecting direction. [Results] Molybdenum deposits in North China could be divided into four metallogenic types and four mineral prediction types. The metallogenic regularities of molybdenum deposits had been summarized and the prospecting direction is proposed. [Conclusions] We thought the metallogenic age mainly concentrated in the Paleoproterozoic, the Permian-Triassic and Jurassic-Cretaceous, and the later was the major metallogenic epoch. The molybdenum deposits mainly produced in Paleoproterozoic Henan-Shanxi continental margin rift zone, late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic continental margin active zone in the south and north of North China block and the late Mesozoic magmatic arc, which the main metallogenic types were porphyry type and skarn type. The ore-forming materials were mainly come from crust-source or crust-mantle mixed source, and the ore-forming fluids were dominated by magmatic water, which were mixed with atmospheric water in the late stage. We pointed out three the most important areas as superior ore-forming conditions and great ore-prospecting potential like Pingquan, Hebei Province-Chifeng-Liangcheng in Inner Mongolia, the western segment of the northern margin of the North China block and Ruyang-Songxian-Luanchuan area in east Qinling-Dabie belt and Heiyingshan-Yagan area.
Key words: molybdenum deposits    regional metallogeny    predictions types    North China    mineral exploration engineering    

1 引言

钼作为一种稀有金属以其独特的性能,被广泛应用于钢铁、电子、有色、航空、化工以及核工业等领域,素有“能源金属”、“战争金属”之称。最新研究发现,钼在半导体材料中显示出了优良的特性,在新兴材料领域表现出强劲的优势。一直以来,钼作为战略性矿产资源,在中国国民经济中均占有的重要地位,被列入全国矿产资源规划中(全国矿产资源规划(2016—2020))。

华北地区横跨华北克拉通、秦祁昆造山系、天山—兴蒙造山系、塔里木陆块4大Ⅰ级构造单元,先后经历了陆核形成、二次克拉通化事件、扬子板块与华北板块碰撞造山事件、古亚洲洋俯冲闭合事件以及太平洋板块俯冲事件等,多期次的构造岩浆活动带来了丰富的钼矿资源,形成了东秦岭—大别、华北陆块北缘、大兴安岭中南段和黑鹰山—亚干等钼成矿带,成为中国最主要的钼矿资源基地(Mao et al., 2008, 2011a, bShu et al., 2014)。前人主要针对该区斑岩型、矽卡岩型钼矿床就矿床特征、成矿时代、流体包裹体、矿床成因、成矿机制等进行了大量的研究(Mao et al., 2008, 2011a, b丁正江等,2012Yang et al., 2012aGao et al., 2013Chen et al., 2014李正远等,2014Shu et al., 2014Zhai et al., 2014Liu et al., 2017Zhang et al., 2018aZhang et al., 2019李怀坤等,2020王智等,2020相振群等,2020张家辉等,2020),并提出以下认识: (1)钼矿床成矿时代主要集中于晚古生代—三叠纪、印支期和燕山期,其中燕山期最为重要;(2)陆陆碰撞背景下,挤压—伸展过渡时期的斑岩体系形成的流体包裹体以富CO2流体为特征,而洋陆碰撞背景下,火山弧岩体中形成的流体包裹体以贫CO2流体为特征;(3)巨量钼主要来源于地壳,并有少量幔源物质参与。众多学者大量的研究工作主要集中于典型矿床的深入剖析,而对区域成矿规律的总结尚未深入。近年来,一系列大、中型钼矿床的发现(高阳等,2010蔡明海等,2011a张雨莲等,2012李俊建等, 2016a, bZhou et al., 2019;),为华北地区钼矿勘查注入了新的活力,对全区钼矿床成矿特征、控矿要素、区域成矿规律等进行梳理与总结提出了新的要求。本次利用华北地区矿产资源潜力评价项目❶❷❸统计的98处钼矿床(点)资料进行认真分析,初步总结了研究区钼矿资源特征及成矿规律,以期为该区钼矿资源勘查部署和资源潜力分析提供依据。

2 资源特征

截至2016年,华北地区钼矿探明资源总量达1200万t(全国矿产资源储量通报,2016),共发现钼矿床(点)235个,其中,河南省钼矿资源位居全国第一,已发现矿床(点)95处,内蒙古紧随其后,已发现矿床(点)82处;河北省已发现31处;山东省发现7处;山西省已发现的12处钼矿床以中小型为主;北京市钼矿分布零散,发现矿床(点)8处。相较于2015年,全区钼矿资源储量呈下降趋势,河南、内蒙、河北均有降低(图 1),其中河南省降低最多,2016年比2015年减少了49.22万t。

图 1 华北地区各省份钼矿床储量及矿床数量 Fig. 1 Reserves and numbers of molybdenum deposits in North China

近年来,华北地区主要钼矿带内先后取得了多处找矿突破,其中,河南省发现嵩县雷门沟超大型斑岩型钼矿床、前范岭大型石英脉型钼矿、温泉斑岩型钼矿等3处;内蒙古发现曹四夭超大型斑岩型钼矿床、迪彦钦阿木超大型斑岩型钼矿、查干花大型斑岩型钼矿、毕鲁干甘中型斑岩型钼矿等4处;河北省发现柴家沟大型斑岩型钼矿、太阳沟斑岩型钼矿、太平村大型斑岩型钼矿等3处;山西省灵丘县发现古道沟钼矿。而新发现的钼矿床中,除以燕山期斑岩型钼矿为主外,还包括有新成矿时代、新成矿类型等一系列大中型钼矿床,既为该区钼矿勘查提出的新的方向,同时也显示出了华北地区钼矿仍存在着巨大的找矿潜力。

3 钼矿床类型及特征 3.1 钼矿床成因类型

华北地区钼矿床成矿类型多样,大体可以划分为热液型和沉积变质型,而热液型又可细分为斑岩型、接触交代型和热液脉型(图 2),其中以斑岩型和接触交代型为主,超大型和大型钼矿几乎均为这两种类型(李俊建等,2013),热液脉型钼矿床以含矿石英脉为主,成矿规模相对有限,而近年来前范岭大型石英脉型钼矿的发现,打破了以往热液脉型钼矿不成大矿的观点。沉积变质型钼矿在研究区分布有限,目前仅在内蒙古阿拉善地区发现了1处。

图 2 华北地区钼矿成矿规律略图(据李俊建等,2013修改) Fig. 2 A sketch of the metallogenic regularity of molybdenum deposits in North China (modified from Li Junjian et al., 2013)
3.1.1 斑岩型钼矿

斑岩型钼矿为华北地区最重要的钼矿类型,全区有斑岩型钼矿产地48处,其中大型及以上8处,中型14处,小型9处,矿点17处。矿床通常与印支期—燕山期中酸性侵入岩体密切相关,岩性主要有花岗闪长斑岩、花岗斑岩、似斑状花岗岩、石英闪长斑岩、二长斑岩和花岗闪长岩等。无论是酸性斑岩还是中酸性斑岩,均为高硅、富钾、贫钠的高钾钙碱性岩,成矿专属性明显。钼矿体主要赋存于斑岩体内部,其次为内外接触带附近。对于角砾岩型钼矿,本次将它们归属于斑岩型钼矿的亚类。该类矿床矿石矿物组合较简单,多为辉钼矿和黄铁矿。斑岩型钼矿床矿产地虽总数不多,但易形成超大型或大型矿床,以河南、内蒙古、河北最为集中。代表性矿床有河南的南泥湖、三道庄、夜长坪钼矿等,内蒙古的曹四夭、迪彦钦阿木、查干花钼矿等,河北的大湾、撒岱沟门钼矿等。

3.1.2 接触交代型钼矿

研究区接触交代型钼矿床已探明储量仅次于斑岩型。该类型钼矿分布范围广泛,尤其在河南、山东都有超大型钼(钨)矿产出。全区接触交代型钼矿产地33处,其中大型及以上5处,中型6处,小型3处,矿点19处。该类钼矿床通常不独立产出,岩体内部形成斑岩型矿床,外围接触带形成矽卡岩型矿床,且多与钨矿或铜矿共伴生,如河南省南泥湖—三道庄斑岩-矽卡岩型钼钨矿、夜长坪斑岩-矽卡岩型钼钨矿、山东省邢家山矽卡岩型钼(钨)矿等。

3.1.3 热液脉型

热液型钼矿一般规模较小,多为矿点、矿化点,少数为小型,全区热液型钼矿产地24处,其中大型1处,中型2处,小型7处,矿点14处。该类型钼矿在河南、内蒙古和河北三省有少量产出,研究程度相对较低,大致有3种表现形式: (1)断裂带中的石英脉型;(2)花岗斑岩脉(内)外接触;(3)石英(硅化)- 钾长石(化)脉(带)型,当矿物结晶粗大时可形成伟晶岩脉型矿体。代表性矿床有河南省寨凹、纸坊和内蒙古曹家屯钼矿等。

3.1.4 沉积变质型

研究区沉积变质型钼矿仅在内蒙古阿拉善地区发现1处,成矿时代为寒武纪,为元山子小型钼镍矿。矿区地表基本被第四系覆盖,下部可见寒武纪地层,地表未见到出露。镍、钼矿体赋存于寒武系张夏组地层中,呈条带状产出,受岩相古地理及沉积环境的控制作用明显。

3.2 矿产预测类型划分

矿产预测类型是从成矿预测和矿产资源潜力评价的角度对矿产资源进行分类的一种方法,具有区域性但也兼顾典型矿床的一般性成矿规律,其理论基础就是成矿系列理论的矿床式(王登红,2013)。依据钼矿预测类型划分原则(陈毓川,2010叶天竺,2013王登红,2013)以及已发现矿床成矿类型,主要预测类型有斑岩型、矽卡岩型、热液型、沉积变质型。华北地区钼矿资源丰富,产出类型多样,根据全国钼矿资源预测类型划分方案,华北地区提出钼矿预测类型主要为斑岩型、矽卡岩型、热液型和沉积变质型等(李俊建等,2013),与全国钼矿预测类型相同。主要钼矿矿产预测类型详见表 1

表 1 华北地区钼矿矿产预测类型一览 Table 1 Prediction type of Mo deposit in North China
4 钼矿成矿规律 4.1 成矿时间规律

成矿时代的厘定,是研究矿床成因、分析成矿环境、厘定成矿条件、总结成矿规律的重要手段,对矿产勘查及预测具有重要意义。华北地区钼矿分布广泛,矿床的产出受成矿背景、构造环境影响明显,根据它们在空间上的相邻特征,成矿时代的连续性,成矿地质背景、矿床特征以及矿床成因的相似性,全区可以划分为东秦岭—大别钼成矿带、华北陆块北缘钼成矿带、黑鹰山—雅干钼成矿带和大兴安岭中南段钼成矿带。虽然各成矿带钼矿床成矿环境不同,但其成矿时代相对集中,大体可以划分为古元古代(1.88~1.75 Ga)、二叠纪—三叠纪(200~260 Ma)和侏罗纪—白垩纪(140~160 Ma和110~130 Ma)3个成矿时期。

4.1.1 古元古代

古元古代钼成矿事件主要发生在东秦岭—大别钼成矿带,该带位于华北陆块南缘与秦岭造山带的接触部位(图 3),呈NWW-SEE向展布,南北分别以商丹、三宝断裂为界,后者通常认为是秦岭造山带的反向逆冲边界(陈衍景等,1992)。1.8~1.5 Ga,古宽坪洋壳沿栾川断裂向北俯冲到华熊地块之下,诱发的弧岩浆作用形成熊耳群一套玄武岩、玄武安山岩、安山岩、英安岩和流纹岩组合,含矿热液随岩浆上侵并富集成矿,形成中高温热液脉型钼矿床,成矿时代集中于1.88~1.75 Ga。代表性矿床——寨凹热液脉型钼矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素模式年龄的加权平均值为(1753±26)Ma(MSWD=3.2)(邓小华等,2009);龙门店银(钼)矿中辉钼矿的Re-Os同位素等时线年龄为1875 Ma(赵太平,2007魏庆国等,2009a),是中国已知成矿时代最早的钼矿床。

图 3 东秦岭—大别钼矿带地质略图(据Mao et al., 2008, 2011a范羽等,2014修改) 1—第四系;2—太古宙基底;3—元古宙火山岩碎屑岩;4—太古宙火山岩碎屑岩;5—三叠系碎屑岩;6—中生代火山岩碎屑岩;7—白垩系火山岩;8—加里东期花岗岩;9—燕山期花岗岩;10—主要断裂;11—钼矿床。钼矿床编号: 1—龙门店;2—寨凹;3—石门;4—前范岭;5—马家洼;6—黄龙铺;7—大湖;8—东菠菜沟;9—月河坪;10—八里坡;11—晏湾;12—马河;13—扎子沟;14—南台;15—秋树湾;16—灰柴沟;17—石家湾;18—夜长坪;19—三道庄;20—上房沟;21—肖畈;22—南泥湖;23—母山;24—金堆城;25—红石窑;26—雷门沟;27—鱼池岭;28—泉家峪;29—千鹅冲;30—沙坡岭;31—莲花池;32—大银尖;33—天目沟;34—竹园沟;35—东沟;36—扫帚坡;37—东沟口;38—汤家坪;39—老界岭;40—黑家庄;41—莲花沟;42—夏洼;43—鱼库;44—潘河;45—纸房;46—大石门沟;47—张湾后;48—西沟;49—螃蟹沟;50—大石沟;51—杨家庄;52—朱斐店;53—大沙地 Fig. 3 Regional geological map of molybdenum mineralization belt in east Qinling-Dabie (modified from Mao et al., 2008, 2011a; Fan Yu et al., 2014) 1-Quaternary sediments; 2-Archean basrment; 3-Proterozoic volcanic clastic rocks; 4-Archean volcanic clastic rocks; 5-Tertiary clastic rocks; 6- Mesozoic clastic rocks and volcanic rocks; 7-Cretaceous volcanic rocks; 8-Caledonian granite; 9-Yanshanian granite; 10-Main faults; 11-Molybdenum deposits. Names of molybdenum deposits: 1-Longmendian; 2.Zhaiao; 3-Shimen; 4-Qianfanling; 5-Majiawa; 6-Huanglongpu; 7-Dahu; 8-Dongbocaigou; 9-Yueheping; 10-Balipo; 11-Yanwan; 12-Mahe; 13-Dawanggou; 14-Nantai; 15-Qiushuwan; 16-Huichaigou; 17-Shijiawan; 18-Yechangping; 19-Sandaozhuang; 20-Shangfanggou; 21-Xiaofan; 22-Nannihu; 23-Mushan; 24-Jinduicheng; 25-Hongshiyao; 26-Leimengou; 27-Yuchiling; 28-Quanjiayu; 29-Qianechong; 30-Shapoling; 31-Lianhuachi; 32-Dayinjian; 33-Tianmugou; 34-Zhuyuangou; 35-Donggou; 36- Saozhupo; 37- Donggoukou; 38- Tangjiaping; 39- Laojieling; 40- Heijiazhuang; 41- Lianhuagou; 42- Xiawa; 43- Yuku; 44- Panhe; 45-Zhifang; 46-Dashimengou; 47-Zhangwanhou; 48-Xigou; 49-Pangxiegou; 50-Dashigou; 51-Yangjiazhuang; 52-Zhufeidian; 53-Dashadi
4.1.2 二叠纪—三叠纪

二叠纪—三叠纪是华北地区钼矿的一个重要成矿时期,在东秦岭—大别钼矿带、华北陆块北缘钼矿带、黑鹰山—雅干钼矿带和大兴安岭中南段钼矿带均发育了众多斑岩型、热液脉型、斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿床。在这3条钼成矿带中,黑鹰山—雅干钼矿带受特殊大地构造位置影响,成矿时代较老,主要介于260~220 Ma。该成矿带位于内蒙古北山地区,大地构造位置位于古生代哈萨克斯坦板块、塔里木板块及红柳河—牛圈子—洗肠井洋盆的交接地带(徐焱等,2020)。晚志留世—早石炭世,该区两大板块及洋盆的多期次碰撞、拼贴,形成了岛弧- 岩浆岩带,216~220 Ma(张雨莲等,2012)开始由碰撞后进入板内伸展环境,强烈的构造-岩浆活动带来了丰富的成矿物质,形成以流沙山钼金矿床(辉钼矿Re-Os等时线年龄为(260±10)Ma(聂凤军等,2002))、小狐狸山钼矿床(辉钼矿Re-Os等时线年龄为(220±2.2)Ma(彭振安等,2010))等为代表的大、中型钼矿床。

对于东秦岭—大别钼矿带而言,238~218 Ma,扬子板块、华北板块与夹于其间的秦岭造山带沿勉略和商丹2条俯冲带由南向北斜向俯冲拼贴一起,于200~220 Ma进入造山后期的拉张伸展阶段,加厚的岩石圈具重力不稳定性,发生快速转换,导致岩石圈发生拆沉减薄并伴随地壳的快速隆升,从而使软流圈地幔基性岩浆上涌和深部物质上升(李锦轶,2001)。此时期,成矿元素在流体中的浓度随压力增大而急剧增高,随流体沿通道快速上侵并在构造有利部位沉淀、富集,形成钼矿床,如嵩县前范岭钼矿辉钼矿Re-Os等时线年龄为(239±13)Ma(高阳等,2010)、灵宝市大湖中型钼金矿床辉钼矿ReOs模式年龄为(223.0±2.8)Ma~(232.9±2.7)Ma(李厚民等,2008)、大石门沟钼矿床Re-Os同位素平均年龄为(203.18±4.06) Ma(李靖辉,2014)。

古生代以来,古亚洲洋向华北板块俯冲、拼贴,并于晚二叠世完成闭合(Xiao et al., 2003),在三叠纪进入造山后伸展阶段(聂凤军等,2011),于华北陆块北缘形成了大量造山后花岗岩。华北陆块北缘钼矿带(图 4)主要在此时期形成,该钼矿带西起内蒙古四子王旗,东至辽宁锦州—北票一线,受NE、NNE、和近EW向构造控制明显。带内已发现钼(铜)矿床(点)近40处,矿床类型主要为矽卡岩型、斑岩型、斑岩-矽卡岩型和热液型(代军治,2008聂凤军等,2011)。近年来,华北陆块北缘钼矿带相继发现了多处超大型及大中型钼矿床,成矿时代集中于250~220 Ma,揭开了以查干花大型斑岩型钼矿床(238.6±4.4)Ma(李光耀等,2020)、大苏计大型斑岩型钼矿床(222.5±3.2)Ma(张彤等,2009吴昊等,2014)、撒岱沟门大型斑岩型钼矿床(237±2) Ma(张莉莉等,2019)、查干德尔斯大型斑岩型钼矿床(243±2.2)Ma(蔡明海等,2011b)、车户沟中型斑岩型钼矿床(250.2±7.2)Ma(孟树等,2013)为代表的印支期成矿的序幕。

图 4 燕辽钼(铜)成矿带地质略图(据黄典豪等,1996修改;代军治等,2008) 1—新生界;2—中生届;3—古生界;4—新元古界;5—太古代变质岩;6—中生代酸性火山岩;7—中生代基性—中性火山岩;8—基性侵入岩;9—中生代花岗岩类;10—中生代中性侵入岩;11—断裂;12—钼矿床;13—铜(钼)多金属矿床 Fig. 4 Schematic geological map of the Yanshan-Liaoning molybdenum belt (modified from Huang Dianhao et al., 1996; Dai Junzhi et al., 2008) 1-Cenozoic; 2-Mesozoic; 3-Paleozoic; 4-Neoproterozoic; 5-Archean metamorphic rocks; 6-Mesozoic acid volcanic rocks; 7-Mesozoic basicmedium volcanic rocks; 8-Basic intrusive rock; 9-Mesozoic Granitoids; 10-Mesozoic medium intrusive rocks; 11-Faults; 12-Molybdenum deposits; 13-Copper (Molybdenum) polymetallic deposit

对于大兴安岭中南段钼成矿带而言,该时期成矿活动相对较少。古生代以来,该带属于西伯利亚板块南缘,并于三叠纪由北向南逐渐增生,与其南侧的华北板块碰撞、拼贴于索伦山—林西缝合带(Xiao et al., 2003),形成早二叠世高钾钙碱性花岗岩。于三叠纪,该区进入同造山挤压收缩向造山后拉张伸展作用的转换阶段,强烈的构造-岩浆活动为成矿提供了动力学机制和运输通道,并形成以毕鲁干甘中型斑岩型钼矿(237.9±1.7Ma)(李俊建等,2016a)、宝格达乌拉大型斑岩型钼矿(240.9±2.5 Ma)(刘勇等,2012)为代表的钼矿床,成矿时代主要为250~220 Ma。

4.1.3 侏罗纪—白垩纪

侏罗纪—白垩纪为华北地区钼矿的主成矿期,成矿类型以斑岩型和接触交代型为主,与燕山期大规模岩浆侵入活动密切相关。自中侏罗世以来,古太平洋板块开始沿NWW向俯冲于欧亚板块之下,导致中国东部构造体制发生转变,形成了广泛发育的弧后岩浆岩。在此环境下,下地壳重熔形成含钼花岗质岩浆,在构造薄弱区上侵并发生含矿热液浓集、流体不混溶等水岩相互作用,含钼热液发生迁移、富集、沉淀,并形成钼矿床。进入早白垩世,华北克拉通发生强烈克拉通破坏、岩石圈减薄、软流圈上涌事件,成矿流体再次活化、浓集、成矿,最终形成大量产出的斑岩型、矽卡岩型、斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿床,成矿时代大体可以分为2期: 140~160 Ma和110~130 Ma。东秦岭—大别钼矿带形成以南泥湖—三道庄钼钨矿辉钼矿(141.5±7.8)Ma(李永峰等,2004),夜长坪钼钨矿(145.3±4.4)Ma、(144.89± 0.96)Ma(毛冰等,2011),东沟钼矿床(116.5±1.7) Ma~(115.5±1.7)Ma(叶会寿等,2006),千鹅冲钼矿(128.7±7.3)Ma(杨梅珍等,2010);胶东地区则形成以邢家山斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿(158.7±2.06 Ma)(丁正江等,2012)、尚家庄斑岩型钼矿(116.9±0.81 Ma) (Cheng et al., 2017);华北陆块北缘钼成矿带形成以大庄科爆破角砾岩型钼矿床(136.8±2.6 Ma)(刘舒波等,2012)、泉子沟斑岩型钼矿(170.8±2.0 Ma) (Zhang et al., 2020)、曹四夭斑岩型钼矿(143.1±2.4 Ma)(Zhou et al., 2019)、寿王坟矽卡岩型铜(铁、钼) 矿(128±1 Ma)(董朋生等,2018);大兴安岭中南段钼成矿带形成以乌兰德勒铜钼矿辉钼矿(131.3±1.6 Ma)(陶继雄等,2017),敖仑花铜钼矿(132±1 Ma) (马星华等,2009)、太平沟钼矿(129.4±3.9 Ma)(王圣文等,2009)为代表的一批大型、超大型钼矿床。

4.2 空间分布规律

不同的大地构造环境造就了不同时代、不同类型的钼矿床。长城纪在豫陕陆缘裂谷盆地中形成了热液脉型钼矿;新元古代至早中寒武世,在华北古陆与秦祁昆造山系过渡带的陆缘弧盆区形成沉积变质型钼镍矿床。二叠纪—三叠纪,中国东部处在古特提斯构造域向古太平洋构造域的转换时期,华北陆块北缘及其北侧基底构造活化,中酸性浅成斑岩体侵位,形成斑岩型钼矿床;在华北陆块南缘,扬子板块与华北板块拼合,在陆缘岩浆弧形成岩浆热液型钼矿,在东秦岭地区,钼矿床主要分布在商丹断裂带北部,晋豫碰撞岩浆岩带之小秦岭—伏牛山碰撞造山带内,矿床形成于活动大陆边缘构造环境中,与中生代酸性岩浆岩关系密切。在桐柏地区,钼矿床主要分布于桐柏—大别火山岩浆岩带之信阳逆冲推覆火山岩带内(祝少辉,2015),赋矿地层为新太古界至下古生界的碎屑岩-碳酸盐岩及变质岩、火山岩。早白垩世,华北地区东部进入大规模伸展裂陷时期,在华北断陷盆地群的四周发育隆起和陆内岩浆弧,生成大量的斑岩型和接触交代型钼矿。印支期和燕山期花岗(斑)岩与斑岩型、接触交代型钼矿关系密切,岩体以高硅、过铝、富碱、高钾钙碱性系列花岗质岩石为主,“小岩体成大矿”明显,如河北撒岱沟门钼矿,含矿斑岩体以浅成-超浅成相小岩株,岩枝为主,一般以小而复杂的高侵位复式斑岩成矿最好;河南省汤家坪、千鹅冲等钼矿成矿岩体均为细粒花岗岩-花岗斑岩小岩体。

4.3 成矿物质来源

前人对研究区钼矿物质来源进行了大量研究,但壳源来源、幔源来源还是壳幔混源问题仍存在不同观点(侯增谦等, 2009, 2015)。晚古生代末期,古亚洲洋闭合引发的构造-岩浆事件,为研究区北部钼矿提供了丰富的物质来源和强大的动力学环境。印支期—燕山期以来,扬子板块向华北板块俯冲碰撞以及东部古太平洋板块向欧亚板块斜向俯冲,造成研究区岩石圈地幔由增厚转向拆沉减薄,软流圈上涌,并发生壳幔混熔,强烈的水-岩相互作用促使钼元素富集,并沿构造通道随岩浆上侵,在有利地段沉积成矿。已有资料表明,河南省南泥湖斑岩型钼矿床斑岩体87Sr/86Sr初始值为0.7034~ 0.7080,δ34S为0.37‰~5.44‰(罗铭玖等,1991),石英、方解石的δ18O值为8.9‰~12.5‰(秦臻等,2012向君峰等,2012);秋树湾钼矿床斑岩体87Sr/86Sr初始值为0.70495,δ34S为-0.1‰~2.7‰(秦臻,等2012),石英、方解石的δ18O值为9.2‰~ 10.59‰(向君峰等,2012);安妥岭钼矿床δ34S为0.7‰ ~2.8‰ (者萌等,2014),辉钼矿206Pb/204Pb、207Pb/204Pb和208Pb/204Pb值范围分别为17.426~17.822、15.396~15.495和37.409~37.239;黄铁矿的206Pb/204Pb、207Pb/204Pb和208Pb/204Pb值范围分别为16.366~16.519、15.229~15.251和36.410~36.571(卢仁等,2013);山东省邢家山钼矿床辉钼矿Re含量为((2.4571±0.0084) ×10-6 ~ (7.2463±0.0251))×10-6;内蒙古敖仑花斑岩型钼铜矿床δ34S值介于-1.2~3.5 (邹滔等,2011),辉钼矿Re含量主要在12.9×10-6~38.9×10-6,平均为24.5×10-6 (马星华等,2009舒启海等,2009);小东沟斑岩型钼矿床黄铁矿δ34S为3.2‰~4.8‰,辉钼矿δ34S为4.2‰~5.4‰,石英δ18O值为4.6‰~13.4‰(聂凤军等,2007);车户沟斑岩型钼矿床δ34S为-0.608‰~0.861‰(翁海蛟等,2014),δ18OH2O值为-5.1‰~4.2‰,δDH2O为-91‰~-88‰ (孟树等,2013)。从以上数据可以看出,钼矿床成矿流体以岩浆水为主,主要来源于壳源或壳幔混源,并有后期天水混入,成矿物质主要来源于壳幔混源,少量来源于壳源(张遵忠等,2009丁正江等,2012刘舒波等,2012者萌等,2014李俊建等,2016b)。

4.4 控矿因素

华北地区钼矿床成因类型以斑岩型、矽卡岩型为主,另两种类型——热液脉型及沉积变质型钼矿床规模小,资源量有限。

4.4.1 斑岩型钼矿床控矿因素

斑岩型矿床是指与浅成—超浅成长英质斑岩侵入岩有关的浸染状、细脉浸染状为主的矿床,以品位低、矿量大著称,它是全球铜和钼最主要的来源。该类型矿床主要产于活动大陆边缘、岛弧等构造环境,矿化与岩浆晚期高钾钙碱性系列中酸性小岩体关系密切,以细脉状、网脉状、浸染状为主,矿体多产于岩体中或其附近;围岩蚀变普遍发育且分带明显,从岩体中心向外依次为钾化带、硅化带、青磐岩化带、绢英岩化带和泥化带,矿体多产于钾化带、硅化带、绢英岩化带中。矿石类型由岩体向外依次为: 无矿带→辉钼矿+黄铜矿+斑铜矿→黄铁矿±黄铜矿→黄铁矿→方铅矿+闪锌矿。

斑岩型是华北地区钼矿床主要的成矿类型,在研究区广泛产出,成矿时代主要为晚古生代和中生代。晚古生代斑岩型钼矿床主要分布在东秦岭—大别钼成矿带、大兴安岭中南段钼成矿带和华北陆块北缘钼成矿带西段,成矿时代集中于220~200 Ma。前已述及,受扬子板块向华北板块碰撞和古亚洲洋俯冲、拼贴于华北板块之上的影响,在华北板块南、北缘形成巨大的印支期花岗岩带,成矿母岩沿NE或近NW向主断裂产出,以高钾钙碱性为主,控矿构造与区域大地构造格局一致,次级断裂常见有后期脉岩填充。矿化蚀变可分为绢英岩化、硅化、钾化、青磐岩化,其中钼矿主要形成于绢英岩化、硅化阶段。矿石矿物主要为辉钼矿,并有少量的黄铁矿、黄铜矿、磁黄铁矿、闪锌矿、方铅矿、白钨矿等,呈细脉浸染状、网脉状和细脉状产出。

晚侏罗世—早白垩世是华北地区斑岩型钼矿床成矿的爆发期,受古太平洋板块向欧亚板块俯冲影响,在中国东部地区形成一套壳幔混熔的高钾钙碱性花岗岩系列,并在东秦岭—大别山钼成矿带、华北陆块北缘钼矿带、大兴安岭中南段钼矿带均形成了一系列与之相关的大型、超大型钼矿床,成矿时代集中于160~140 Ma和130~110 Ma。钼矿形成于小斑岩体结晶分异后期的流体分异,而小斑岩体来源于花岗质岩浆斜长石结晶分异后的岩浆残余。矿石矿物成分简单,主要为辉钼矿、黄铁矿、黄铜矿、方铅矿和闪锌矿,在岩体内外接触带呈(细脉)浸染状、斑杂状分布。围岩蚀变一般从内向外是钾长石化、硅化、黑云母化、绢云母化、绿泥石化蚀变。

4.4.2 接触交代型钼矿床控矿因素

接触交代型也是华北地区钼矿床主要的成矿类型,该类型与碳酸盐岩地层关系密切。当花岗岩体与大理岩-含钙质的碎屑岩接触时,在岩体外接触带形成矽卡岩化带和相应的接触交代型钼钨(白钨矿)矿,较大岩体外侧的接触交代型钼钨矿体厚度可达100 m以上。有关接触交代型铜钼矿床,钼矿体通常在斑岩体中富集,铜矿体则更易富集在矽卡岩带中。研究区内与矽卡岩型钼矿床关系密切的碳酸盐地层主要有古元古界荆山群,中元古界官道口群、新元古界栾川群、蓟县系雾迷山组以及泥盆系—石炭系一套碎屑-碳酸盐岩组合。钼矿体形态较为简单,一般呈层状、似层状、透镜状分布于碳酸盐岩地层内,矿体内一般还伴生铜、钨等,局部可形成单独的铜、钨矿体。矿石中金属矿物主要有辉钼矿、白钨矿、黄铜矿、黄铁矿、方铅矿、闪锌矿、磁黄铁矿等,呈不等粒状、胶状结构,浸染状、块状、细脉状构造。

4.4.3 热液型钼矿床控矿因素

热液型钼矿床在华北地区出露相对较少,主要分布在华北陆块北缘钼矿带和东秦岭—大别钼矿带,成矿时代主要集中于侏罗纪—白垩纪,如河北省安妥岭钼矿床、四拨子—六拨子铜多金属矿床、茅山花市钼矿床、磴上钼矿床;内蒙古达来敖包钼矿床、七一山钼矿床等。从已有资料可以看出,热液型钼矿床主要分布于斑岩型矿床外围,其硫化物中硫同位素组成与斑岩型钼矿相似,是与斑岩同一构造-岩浆-成矿事件的产物(段士刚等,2010)。矿体主要呈似层状、脉状、透镜状产出,钼矿体主要呈细脉状、网脉状、浸染状等产出。此外,华北东、西部陆块在约1850 Ma沿中部造山带完成拼合(Wang et al., 2016),随后在约1831 Ma形成了熊耳裂谷(赵太平等,2007),强烈的构造-岩浆活动,为该区含矿热液的运移、富集提供了良好的动力学和热力学条件,形成了一些热液型钼矿床,如河南寨凹钼矿(李厚民等,2009)、龙门店钼矿(魏庆国等,2009a)等。

4.4.4 沉积变质型钼矿床控矿因素

沉积变质型钼矿在南方寒武系黑色岩系中相对常见,该类矿床产出少,规模小,开发难度大。在北方仅在内蒙古阿拉善地区发育一处—元山子镍钼矿。该矿床矿体赋存于寒武系张夏组含炭(夹石英)绢云母千枚岩、黑色(含镍、钼等元素)含炭石英绢云母千枚岩之中,矿体呈条带状产出,与围岩无明显界线。矿石以粒状结构为主,同时具交代结构、变质生长结构、胶状结构,细脉浸染状、浸染状、条带状、碎屑状构造,主要矿石矿物有黄铜矿、辉砷镍矿、针镍矿、硫砷镍矿。

5 钼矿找矿方向及资源潜力分析

华北地区钼矿资源丰富,找矿潜力巨大,近年在东秦岭—大别、华北陆块北缘西段、黑鹰山—亚干印支期、燕山期斑岩型、热液脉型钼矿床的发现,为该区钼矿勘查指明了新的方向,同时也说明成矿带内仍存在巨大的找矿空间。

(1) 东秦岭—大别钼矿预测区: 该区是中国最重要的钼多金属成矿区,钼矿床多呈NWW向产出,从南到北具有斑岩型Cu-Mo矿、斑岩型Mo矿和斑岩型Au-Mo矿的分带现象,与从俯冲带到克拉通边缘斑岩Cu矿、斑岩Cu-Mo矿、斑岩Mo矿依次发育的分带现象(Cooke et al., 2005)相似,表明钼矿的形成与扬子板块向华北板块俯冲的构造背景关系密切(魏庆国等,2009b)。该区成矿条件十分优越,是获得钼矿找矿突破的重要地区。近年来在该成矿带先后发现了嵩县雷门沟超大型钼矿床、栾川县冷水—赤土店超大型钼钨矿床、嵩县前范岭大型钼矿床、汝阳县竹园沟中型钼矿床,显示了巨大的找矿潜力,而汝阳—嵩县—栾川一带印支期、燕山期高钾钙碱性花岗岩类及其与之相关的斑岩型、热液脉型钼矿仍为重点找矿方向。

(2) 华北陆块北缘西段钼矿预测区: 该区地处华北板块、西伯利亚板块和太平洋板块的结合部位,是中国重要的钼金属成矿区,印支期—燕山期该区经历了多期次构造-岩浆活动,地壳强烈的挤压向伸展作用的转变,造成了大量花岗岩类的发育和斑岩、矽卡岩型钼矿床的形成,是河北、内蒙中东部钼矿勘查的有利地段。该带西段成矿地质条件良好,工作程度较低,近年来,在河北平泉—内蒙赤峰—凉城一带先后发现了柴家沟、车户沟、曹四夭、查干花、鸡冠山等一系列大型、超大型斑岩型钼矿床,为该带钼矿床的勘查注入了新的活力,是钼矿勘查的重点地区。

(3) 黑鹰山—亚干钼矿预测区: 该区地处华北陆块北缘西段、塔里木板块、哈萨克斯坦板块交接地带。古生代以来,多期次的构造-岩浆活动使该区普遍发育岛弧岩浆岩,高钾钙碱性中酸性、酸性岩浆岩分布广泛,钼、铜、铅、锌、金等元素异常突出,为该区成矿提供了良好的动力学环境和物质基础,形成了以西沙德盖、小狐狸山、流沙山等一系列大、中型斑岩型钼矿床,成为钼矿勘查的重点地区,而斑岩型钼矿成为主要找矿方向。

6 结论

(1) 通过对华北地区98处钼矿床资料系统分析,总结了钼矿成矿区带特征,梳理了不同类型矿床成矿特征及控矿因素,提出斑岩型、矽卡岩型、热液型和沉积变质型等4种矿产预测类型。

(2) 对华北地区4条钼成矿带成矿时间规律进行了总结,成矿时代主要集中于古元古代、二叠纪—三叠纪和侏罗纪—白垩纪,以斑岩型、矽卡岩型为主。其中,东秦岭—大别钼成矿带成矿时代集中于1.88~1.75 Ga、220~200 Ma、160~140 Ma和130~ 110 Ma;黑鹰山—雅干钼成矿带成矿时代主要为260~220 Ma;华北陆块北缘钼成矿带成矿时代为250~220 Ma、140~160 Ma和110~130 Ma;大兴安岭中南段钼成矿带成矿时代主要为250~220 Ma和110~130 Ma。

(3) 对华北地区钼矿床成矿空间规律进行了总结,认为古元古代豫陕陆缘裂谷带,晚古生代—中生代华北陆块南、北缘陆缘活动带和哈萨克斯坦板块东南部的陆缘增生带是钼矿床主要产出部位,高钾钙碱性系列花岗质岩石与成矿关系密切。

(4) 华北地区钼矿床成矿物质主要来源于壳源或壳幔混源,成矿流体以壳源或壳幔混源岩浆水为主,并有后期天水混入。

(5) 开展了华北地区钼矿找矿方向及资源潜力分析,认为华北陆块北缘西段河北平泉—内蒙赤峰—凉城一带、东秦岭—大别汝阳—嵩县—栾川一带和黑鹰山—亚干地区成矿条件良好,找矿前景优越,是获得钼矿找矿突破的有利地区。

注释

❶李俊建主编.2013. 华北地区重要矿种区域成矿规律研究成果报告[R].天津地质调查中心,1-742.

❷许立权,张彤,张明. 2013. 内蒙古自治区重要矿产区域成矿规律研究报告[R].内蒙古自治区地质调查院,1-654.

❸周继华,赵增杰,李亮玉,侯占国,陈志方,赵祯祥.2013. 山西省重要矿种区域成矿规律、矿产预测成果报告[R].太原: 山西省地质调查院,1-489.

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