This paper is the result of mineral exploration engineering.
Objective The formation of chromite is generally related to basic-ultrabasic rocks. However, the genetic mechanism of chromite deposit remains controversial. Deciphering the genesis of chromite deposit is of great significance for ore exploration.
Methods This review work summarizes the ore types, metallogenic age, ore body characteristics and genetic mechanisms of chromite based on previous research results. New perspectives are also provided.
Results The chromite resources and production are highly concentrated at South Africa, Kazakhstan, Finland and India, accounting for more than 95% of the global chromite reserves. The global chromite supply market is dominated by South Africa, Kazakhstan and Turkey. There are two major chromite types, namely primary and secondary chromite. Primary chromite is mainly stratiform and podiform, while secondary chromite is mainly seashore placer chromite (or marine placer chromite). The stratiform chromite deposit is commonly huge in scale and formed associated with the basic-ultrabasic intrusions within stable cratons. The podiform chromite deposit is widely distributed and closely symbiotic with ophiolite, but the scale of this deposit is generally small. There are obvious differences in the occurrence, fabric, structure and paragenetic association of the two different chromite types. The podiform chromite is mainly formed in the Phanerozoic, with a small amount formed in the Meso-Neoproterozoic. The stratiform chromite is mainly formed in the Proterozoic and concentrated in the Paleoproterozoic.
Conclusions The genetic model of the stratiform chromite deposit is less controversial, mainly focusing on the contamination mechanism of salic roof rocks and the magma mixture. In contrast, little consensus has been reached on the genetic models of podiform chromite. The enrichment mechanism of chromium is a key issue for more scientific constraints in the future.