This paper is the result of ecological geological survey engineering.
Objective It is the common responsibility of all countries to protect the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development. The nationwide evaluation of ecosystem service is conducive to the promotion of ecological environment protection and the establishment of the modernization of harmonious coexistence between human and nature.
Methods The study on the evaluation of ecosystem service has become a hot topic in the field of ecological sciences. Based on the evaluation method of ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al. in 2014, this study establishes a dynamic evaluation model of ecosystem service by using the Consumer Price Index, the Purchasing Power Indexes of US dollar and Chinese RMB, which is used to evaluate the ecological system services of Chinese provincial land with the data of the Third National Land Survey, and studies the spatial distribution of ecosystem service value of Chinese provincial land via Hotspot analysis technique.
Results The value of ecological system services of Chinese mainland in 2019 is 35.79 trillion RMB. Qinghai province is located in a hotspot area, Heilongjiang province is located in a sub-hotspot area, Guizhou province and Chongqing municipality are located in sub-Coldspot, and Shannxi Province is located in Coldspot area.
Conclusions In terms of the geological background and ecological characteristics of the so-called "Two Zones and Three Belts" which involve the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Northeast zone, Yellow River basin, Yangtze River basin, and coastal zone, we propose to carry out the integrated ecological geological survey of mountain, water, forest, cropland, lake, grass, and sand. The first is to carry out investigation on glacier melting and permafrost thaw, degradation of grasslands and desertification of land in Qinghai-Tibet area. The second is to carry out investigation on forest quality, ecological diversity, and wetland resources in Northeast China. The third is to carry out investigation on ecological degradation in the upstream, water and soil loss in the midstream, and the wetlands shrinkage in the downstream of the Yellow River. The fourth is to carry out investigation on water conservation in the upstream, the rocky desertification and soil erosion of Karst area in the midstream, and wetlands degradation in the downstream of the-Yangtze River. The fifth is to focus on the investigation of typical marine ecosystems such as coastal erosion and mangroves.