河北承德偏硅酸矿泉水成因模式:岩石风化与水岩作用证据
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P641.5

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中国地质调查局项目“承德市生态文明示范区综合地质调查”(DD20190822)和“地球关键带生态地质调查”(DD20190536)资助。


Formation mechanism of metasilicate mineral water in Chengde, Hebei Province: Evidence from rock weathering and water-rock interaction
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    摘要:

    研究目的】承德地处京津冀水源涵养功能区,矿泉水资源丰富,研究其赋存分布与形成机制对矿泉水可持续利用与水源涵养优化具有重要意义。【研究方法】采用岩石地球化学和水化学分析、化学风化指数、矿物表面微观形态分析,同位素示踪等方法系统梳理了研究区地下水偏硅酸空间分异的影响因素,从岩石风化与水化学耦合角度探讨了偏硅酸矿泉水的成藏机制。【研究结果】结果表明:研究区常温水体偏硅酸含量达30 mg/L以上样品占比达5.16%,地热水偏硅酸平均含量达61.76 mg/L。偏硅酸矿泉水成藏受岩石风化和地质构造控制,风化酸性介质影响,水化学形成作用制约。风化敏感程度愈高,易风化矿物含量愈高的含水介质赋存地下水偏硅酸含量愈高。研究区硅酸盐岩总体处于初等化学风化——长石类矿物和辉石等镁铁质矿物风化形成高岭石、蒙脱石和伊利石阶段。构造深部幔源CO2、工矿活动和人类生产生活输入的外源硫酸和硝酸共同参与岩石风化脱硅过程,偏硅酸矿泉水、地热水温泉出露处多为构造复合部位或主干断裂与次级断裂的交汇部位。【结论】承德市偏硅酸矿泉水成因模式可概化为构造断裂深循环淋溶型、风化裂隙浅循环淋溶型和层间孔隙裂隙-补给富集埋藏型3类。植被覆盖较好的玄武岩、火山碎屑岩、陆源碎屑岩流域山前宽缓沟谷与导水断裂交汇带,侵入岩导水导热断裂带、侵入岩与围岩接触带,花岗岩、片麻岩和陆源碎屑岩与碳酸盐岩接触带为偏硅酸矿泉水开采潜力区。
    创新点:(1)从岩石风化与水岩作用水化学耦合角度探讨了偏硅酸矿泉水的成藏机制;(2)系统总结了承德市偏硅酸矿泉水空间分布的影响因素与成因模式。

    Abstract:

    This paper is the result of the hydrogeological survey engineering.
    [Objective]The orientation of Chengde City's primary function of ecological environment in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration is a water conservation area due to its abundant water resource endowment. It is of great significance to clarify the occurrence, spatial variation, and formation mechanism of metasilicate mineral water for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the optimization of water conservation.
    [Methods]Multivariate statistical analysis, rock-wreathing lithogeochemical, hydrogeochemical, and multiple isotopic (δD, δ18O and δ13C) approaches were systematically conducted to identify the influencing factors of the enrichment and spatial variation of metasilicic acid in groundwater in the study area under a water-rock interaction perspective of the Earth's Critical Zone.
    [Results]The results showed that the normal temperature water samples with soluble SiO2 concentrations higher than 30 mg/L accounted for 5.16%, while the average concentration of soluble SiO2 of geothermal water reaches 61.76 mg/L. The enrichment of soluble SiO2 in groundwater was controlled by the rock-weathering desiliconization process and water yield property and transmissivity of geological structures, simultaneously restricted by the recharge of weathering medium acidic substances and hydrochemical formation process in aqueous porous media. The higher the weathering sensitivity of waterbearing media, or the higher the content of easily weathered minerals in exposed strata, the higher the concentration of soluble SiO2 in aquifers tend to obtain. The hypergene silicate rock of the study area was generally in the primary chemical weathering stage that kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite were formed during the dissolution of feldspar minerals, pyroxene, and other mafic minerals. The mantle-derived CO2, exogenous sulfuric acid, nitric acid generated by mining, artificial and agricultural activities were demonstrated to be jointly involved in the rock weathering process. The metasilicate mineral water and geothermal springs were mostly occurring or exposed in the composite parts of the structure or the intersection of main and secondary faults.
    [Conclusions]The genetic model of metasilicate mineral water in Chengde City can be generalized into three types:Deep circulation leaching of tectonic faults, shallow circulation leaching of weathered fissures, and interlayer pore and fracture-recharge enrichment burial type. The intersection zones of the piedmont wide-gentle valley and the water-transmitting faults in the basalt, pyroclastic rock, terrigenous clastic rock basin with high vegetation coverage, water-thermal conduction fracture zone of intrusive rock, contact zones between the intrusive rocks and surrounding rocks, carbonate rocks and granite, gneiss or terrigenous clastic rocks turn out to be the potential exploitation areas of metasilicate mineral water in the bulk horizons.
    Highlights: (1) The forming mechanism of metasilicate mineral water were clarified under an Earth's Critical Zone perspective based on coupled rock-wreathing lithogeochemical and water-rock interaction hydrogeochemical approaches. (2) The genetic model of metasilicate mineral water, controlling and influencing factors for spatial variation of groundwater soluble SiO2 in Chengde were systematically summarized in this paper.

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孙厚云,孙晓明,卫晓锋,陈自然,刘卫,黄行凯,李霞,殷志强,刘文波. 河北承德偏硅酸矿泉水成因模式:岩石风化与水岩作用证据[J]. 中国地质, 2022, 49(4): 1088-1113.
SUN Houyun, SUN Xiaoming, WEI Xiaofeng, CHEN Ziran, LIU Wei, HUANG Xingkai, LI Xia, YIN Zhiqiang, LIU Wenbo. Formation mechanism of metasilicate mineral water in Chengde, Hebei Province: Evidence from rock weathering and water-rock interaction[J]. Geology in China, 2022, 49(4): 1088-1113(in Chinese with English abstract).

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  • 收稿日期:2021-03-23
  • 最后修改日期:2021-12-28
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-09-09
  • 出版日期: 2022-08-20
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