黄河支流汾河流域水资源开发利用现状及生态环境问题
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P641.69

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国家自然科学基金项目(41902256)、中国地质调查项目(DD20190334、DD20221758)及中国地质科学院基本科研业务经费项目(2020010)共同资助。


Water resources utilization and eco-environment problem of Fenhe River, branch of Yellow river
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    摘要:

    研究目的】汾河是黄河第二大支流,也是山西省的第一大河,流域内水资源供需矛盾突出,分析水资源开发利用现状及其生态环境问题是进行流域生态修复的前提。【研究方法】本文在分析汾河流域水资源特征及其开发利用现状的基础上,系统总结了汾河径流量衰减、岩溶大泉断流和水质恶化等生态环境问题,并对其成因进行了分析。【研究结果】研究表明:汾河流域多年平均水资源量为33.59亿m3,其中地下水资源是水资源的主要组成部分,约占72%;2005年以后由于跨流域调水、地下水压采等汾河流域综合治理措施的实施,水资源的供水结构发生了较大的变化,地表水的供水比例由最初的30%提高到55%,地下水供水比例由原来的62%降低到目前的37%。整体上,汾河流域的水资源开发利用程度高达80%以上,水资源的过度开发已导致汾河干流断流、入黄径流量大幅衰减、岩溶大泉断流等严重的生态环境问题。其中,汾河流入黄河径流量从1955至2018年衰减程度达63.5%,衰减的原因主要是降水量的减少和岩溶大泉的流量衰减;汾河流域内8个岩溶大泉的总流量从1956至2018年的衰减程度达69%,50%的岩溶大泉已在不同时期断流,岩溶大泉的水质恶化问题也非常严重,如晋祠泉和龙子祠泉的TDS和SO42-呈逐年升高的趋势,煤矿开采是造成岩溶泉水SO42-含量快速升高的主要原因。【结论】汾河流域的水资源供需矛盾十分突出,虽然通过跨流域调水等生态修复措施实现了汾河干流全年不断流、地下水位止降回升和地表水环境质量初步改善,但生态环境恶化的趋势依然严峻。
    创新点:分析了山西省汾河流域近15年的水资源特征及其供水结构的变化规律;系统总结了汾河流域的生态环境问题,并对其成因进行了探讨。

    Abstract:

    This paper is the result of the hydrogeological survey engineering.
    [Objective] As the second largest tributary of the Yellow River, Fenhe River is the largest river in Shanxi Province. However, there is contradiction between the supply and demand of water resources in the basin. The analysis of water resources utilization and ecoenvironment problem is precondition of ecological remediation.
    [Methods]Based on the analysis of water resources characteristics of the Fenhe River Basin and its utilization, this paper systematically summarizes the ecological and environmental problems of the Fenhe River watershed, such as attenuation of runoff, drying up of karst spring and deterioration in water quality.
    [Results]Our result shows that the average amount of water resources in the Fenhe River Basin for multi-year average is 3.359 billion m3, groundwater resources are the main component of the total water resources, which is accounting for 72%. The structure of water supply of water resources has changed greatly due to the impact of comprehensive treatment measures in the Fen River Basin since 2005, such as cross-basin water transfer and groundwater pressure extraction. The water supply ratio of surface water has increased from 30% to 55%, and the water supply ratio of groundwater has been reduced from 62% to 37%. Overall, the utilization of water resources in the Fenhe River Basin is as high as 80%. Excessive exploitation of water resources has caused serious eco-environmental problems such as the cut-off of Fen River, the significant decline in the runoff of the Fen River into the Yellow River and the decline of karst spring flow. The percentage of runoff for Fenhe River enter the Yellow River has attenuated by 63.5% from 1955 to 2018. The main reasons for the attenuation are the decrease in precipitation and the flow attenuation of the karst spring. The total flow of the 8 large karst springs in the Fenhe River Basin has decreased by 69% from 1956 to 2018, and 50% of the large karst springs had dried up in different periods; The water quality of karst springs has been deteriorating seriously, for example, the TSD and SO42- of Jinci Spring and Longzici Spring have been increasing year by year. Coal mining is the main reason for the rapid increase of SO42- in karst springs.
    [Conclusions]Although the inter-basin water transfer project construction has improve some of the eco-environment in the Fenhe River, such as the recovery of Fenhe River to perennial river, and the stopped falling of groundwater level in the basin, and the improvement of the quality of surface water environment, there is serious unbalance between supply and demand for water resources in Fenhe River Basin, finally the trend of deterioration of the ecological environment is still severe.
    Highlights: The characteristics of water resources and the change of water supply structure in Fen River basin in recent are analyzed in the past 15 years; The eco-environment problem of Fenhe River is summarized and their causes are discussed.

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引用本文

申豪勇,李佳,王志恒,谢浩,梁永平,Yongxin XU,韩双宝,任建会,潘尧云,赵春红,赵一. 黄河支流汾河流域水资源开发利用现状及生态环境问题[J]. 中国地质, 2022, 49(4): 1127-1138.
SHEN Haoyong, LI Jia, WANG Zhiheng, XIE Hao, LIANG Yongping, Yongxin XU, HAN Shuangbao, REN Jianhui, PAN Yaoyun, ZHAO Chunhong, ZHAO Yi. Water resources utilization and eco-environment problem of Fenhe River, branch of Yellow river[J]. Geology in China, 2022, 49(4): 1127-1138(in Chinese with English abstract).

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  • 收稿日期:2021-11-20
  • 最后修改日期:2022-07-18
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-09-09
  • 出版日期: 2022-08-20
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