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引用本文:孙厚云,毛启贵,卫晓锋,张会琼,葸玉泽. 哈密盆地地下水系统水化学特征及形成演化[J]. 中国地质, 2018, 45(6): 1128-1141.
SUN Houyun,MAO Qigui,WEI Xiaofeng,ZHANG Huiqiong,XI Yuze. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and formation evolutionary mechanism of the groundwater system in the Hami basin[J]. Geology in China, 2018, 45(6): 1128-1141(in Chinese with English abstract).
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哈密盆地地下水系统水化学特征及形成演化
孙厚云, 毛启贵, 卫晓锋, 张会琼, 葸玉泽
北京矿产地质研究院, 北京 100012
摘要:
哈密盆地地下水系统形成受构造运动与水文地质条件共同控制,通过划分哈密盆地地下水系统,分区阐述哈密盆地地下水水文地球化学特征与水化学成因及控制因素,从水文地球化学的角度阐明盆地系统的地下水水化学演化规律。结果表明,哈密盆地地下水水化学特征呈明显分带性,沿地下水流动方向,水化学类型逐渐由HCO3型演化为SO4型、最终演化为Cl型;水体TDS含量不断升高,地下水由淡水逐渐演化为微咸水、咸水。地下水离子来源主要为硅酸盐岩与蒸发岩盐溶解,水化学过程受蒸发浓缩作用控制,岩石风化作用与季节变化共同影响。沿地下水径流方向,地下水经盐分溶滤、盐分迁移并在排泄区附近形成盐分聚集带;盐分迁移沿程溶滤作用逐渐减弱,蒸发浓缩作用逐渐增强。哈密盆地地下水化学空间演化主要受自然因素影响驱动,时间演化驱动因素主要为气候变化和工矿活动农业灌溉等人类活动。
关键词:  水化学  地下水系统  哈密盆地  形成演化
DOI:10.12029/gc20180604
分类号:P641.3
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目"新疆东天山中段有色金属基地综合地质调查"(DD20160071)资助。
Hydrogeochemical characteristics and formation evolutionary mechanism of the groundwater system in the Hami basin
SUN Houyun, MAO Qigui, WEI Xiaofeng, ZHANG Huiqiong, XI Yuze
Beijing Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
The groundwater system of the Hami basin can be divided into three subregions based on hydrogeological conditions and structural characteristics. The investigation illustrates the controlling factors of hydrochemical and formation evolutionary mechanism of the groundwater system in the Hami basin through analysis and comparative study of different distributing disciplinarian characteristics of three subregions from the hydrogeochemical perspective. The results show that the distribution of hydrochemical characteristics in the Hami basin has obvious zoning features. The hydrochemical type gradually evolves from HCO3 type to SO4 type and eventually to Cl type while the TDS increases gradually from fresh water into brackish water and salt water in the water flow direction. The main source of water ion is from the dissolution of silicate rock and evaporite salt,and the hydrochemical compositions of groundwater in the study area are mainly controlled by evaporation and influenced by rock weathering and seasonal changes. The groundwater salt goes through filtration, migration and aggregation in the groundwater system, while the filtration effects become relatively weakened and the evaporation concentration increases gradually along the water flow direction. The chemical spatial evolution of groundwater in Hami basin is mainly driven by the influence of natural factors while the main driving factors for the time evolution are climate change and human activities such as industrial and mineral irrigation.
Key words:  hydrogeochemistry  groundwater  Hami basin  evolutionary mechanism