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引用本文:党学亚,常亮,卢娜. 青藏高原暖湿化对柴达木水资源与环境的影响[J]. 中国地质, 2019, 46(2): 359-368.
DANG Xueya,CHANG Liang,LU Na. The impact of climatic warm-wet situation of the Tibetan Plateau on the water resources and environment in Qaidam Basin[J]. Geology in China, 2019, 46(2): 359-368(in Chinese with English abstract).
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青藏高原暖湿化对柴达木水资源与环境的影响
党学亚1,2,3, 常亮1,2,3, 卢娜1,2,3
1.中国地质调查局西安地质调查中心, 陕西 西安 710054;2.中国地质调查局干旱-半干旱地区地下水与生态重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710054;3.陕西省水资源与环境工程技术研究中心, 陕西 西安 710054
摘要:
通过分析研究格尔木和德令哈两个典型流域气象要素、径流及全盆地土地覆盖类型面积的变化,发现青藏高原暖湿化对柴达木盆地水资源与环境影响显著。研究区气温明显上升、干旱指数显著下降,暖湿化明显。2000-2016年与1960-1999年相比,格尔木和德令哈年均气温分别上升了1.7℃和1.3℃、年均降水量分别增加了2 mm和63 mm、年均径流量分别增加了240×106和90×106 m3。2000-2012年全盆地裸地减少,草地、永久冰雪、水体面积、开放灌丛面积增加,植被生态向好发展。暖湿化促使降水量增加是河川径流量和水资源增加及生态环境改善的主要原因。现阶段暖湿化环境对盆地水资源开发利用和生态环境保护有利,但其对改善环境的可持续性需要进一步监测和研究。
关键词:  青藏高原  气候暖湿化  柴达木盆地  水资源与环境
DOI:10.12029/gc20190212
分类号:P641;P627
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目"柴达木盆地巴音河-塔塔凌河流域1:5万水文地质调查"(DD20160291)。
The impact of climatic warm-wet situation of the Tibetan Plateau on the water resources and environment in Qaidam Basin
DANG Xueya1,2,3, CHANG Liang1,2,3, LU Na1,2,3
1.Xi'an Center of Geological Survey, CGS, Xi'an 710054, Shaanxi, China;2.Key Laboratory for Groundwater and Ecology in Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Xi'an 710054, Shaanxi, China;3.Shaanxi Engineering Research Center of water resources and environment, Xi'an 710054, Shaanxi, China
Abstract:
Through studying the changes for meteorological factors, runoff and land cover in Golmud and Delingha in Qaidam Basin, it is found that the water resources and environment has been influenced significantly by climatic warm-wet situation in the-Tibetan Plateau. In the study area, the temperature increases significantly, the drought index decreases significantly, and the climatic warm-wet situation is significant. From 2000 to 2016, the annual average temperature increased respectively 1.7℃ and 1.3℃, annual average precipitation increased respectively 2 mm and 63 mm, annual average runoff increased respectively 240×106 and 90×106 m3, compared with 1960-1999, in Golmud and Delingha basin. From 2000 to 2012, the bare land in the whole basin decreased, the area of grassland, permanent ice, snow, water area and open shrub increased, and ecological vegetation was developed very well. The climatic warm-wet situation promotes the increase in precipitation, and it is the main reason for the increase of runoff, water resources, as well as the improvement of ecological environment. At the present stage, the warm-wet environment is beneficial to water resources development and ecological environmental protection in Qaidam Basin; nevertheless, the sustainable development of the water resources and environment needs further monitoring and deep research.
Key words:  Tibetan Plateau  climatic warm-wet situation  Qaidam Basin  water resources and environment