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引用本文:冯伟民. 病毒与细菌等微生物在地球生物演化史上的作用[J]. 中国地质, 2020, 47(3): 655-663.
FENG Weimin. The role of viruses and bacteria and other microorganisms in the history of the earth biological evolution[J]. Geology in China, 2020, 47(3): 655-663(in Chinese with English abstract).
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病毒与细菌等微生物在地球生物演化史上的作用
冯伟民
中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所, 江苏 南京 210008
摘要:
病毒与细菌统称为微生物。病毒与细菌之害是生物生存遭遇到的最大的灾害,不仅在人类社会历史上留下了深重灾难,而且在地球生物演化史上也是大灭绝的重要推手。虽然病毒和细菌难以形成实体化石,但却以一种特殊的分子化石成为了侦探地质时期生物大灭绝的神针。本文以地球微生物学为指导,以蓝细菌和绿硫细菌分子化石为例,综合有关研究成果,解读了微生物学、病毒和细菌以及微生物岩的有关知识,帮助人们认识地球生物演化史上二次重要的大灭绝事件。本文还从人类演化过程中的农业革命,阐明了人菌共生关系及带来的启示。
关键词:  病毒  细菌  微生物学  生物演化  大灭绝  绿硫细菌  蓝细菌
DOI:10.12029/gc20200307
分类号:Q913.2;P571
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目“雅鲁藏布江缝合带东段的放射虫与新特提斯洋的演化”(41772020)资助。
The role of viruses and bacteria and other microorganisms in the history of the earth biological evolution
FENG Weimin
Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China
Abstract:
Viruses and bacteria are generally called microorganisms. The disaster of viruses and bacteria is the biggest one encountered by living creatures. It not only has left a serious disaster in the history of human society but also has been an important promoter of the mass extinction in the history of the evolution of the Earth's life. Although it is difficult for viruses and bacteria to form solid fossils, a special molecular fossil has become a magic needle for the detection of biological extinction in geological times. With earth microbiology as the guide and cyanobacteria and green sulfur bacteria molecular fossils as the study case, the authors comprehensively explained relevant research results and interpreted the relevant knowledge of microbiology, viruses and bacteria, and microbial rocks, thus helping people understand the two most important events of mass extinction in the history of the earth's biological evolution. This paper also clarifies the association relationship between human and fungus based on the enlightenment from the agricultural revolution in the process of human evolution.
Key words:  viruses  bacteria  microbiology  biological evolution  mass extinction  green sulfur bacteria  cyanobacteria