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引用本文:熊量莉,杨楚鹏,吴峧岐,高红芳,姚永坚,李学杰,朱雪影,程子华. 南海南-北陆缘盆地地层沉积发育特征及其对油气成藏的差异性控制[J]. 中国地质, 2020, 47(5): 1407-1425.
XIONG Liangli,YANG Chupeng,WU Jiaoqi,GAO Hongfang,YAO Yongjian,LI Xuejie,ZHU Xueying,CHENG Zihua. Characteristics of stratigraphic sedimentary in the south-north continental margin basin of the South China Sea and its differential control on hydrocarbon accumulation[J]. Geology in China, 2020, 47(5): 1407-1425(in Chinese with English abstract).
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南海南-北陆缘盆地地层沉积发育特征及其对油气成藏的差异性控制
熊量莉1, 杨楚鹏1, 吴峧岐1, 高红芳1, 姚永坚1, 李学杰1, 朱雪影2, 程子华3
1.自然资源部海底矿产资源重点实验室, 中国地质调查局广州海洋地质调查局, 广东 广州 510075;2.海洋学院, 中国地质大学 (武汉), 湖北 武汉 420074;3.中国科学院边缘海与大洋地质重点实验室, 中国科学院南海海洋研究所, 广东 广州 510301
摘要:
南海作为西太平洋最大的边缘海,油气资源丰富,油气赋存规律的南北差异性大。本文在系统梳理南海中—新生代地层、沉积相发育特征的基础上,对南海南北典型含油气盆地的石油地质条件进行了对比分析。结果认为南海打开过程对古南海沉积地层的改造,使得现有残余地层南北分离,主要分布于北部的珠江口盆地—台西南盆地和南部的礼乐盆地中,推测发育“自生自储”、“新生古储”或“古生新储”的中—新生界油气成藏模式。南海新生代油气藏在“北张、南挤”的构造应力背景下,古近纪以来的古水系控制了大型碎屑岩油气藏的分布;区域构造运动和海平面变化控制了中新世碳酸盐岩油气藏的发育;早新生代以来的古地貌控制的深水峡谷、深海扇、扇三角洲沉积体系孕育了潜在深水油气藏。总之,南海南北地层沉积各有特色,油气成藏条件各有优势,但均有良好的油气勘探前景,本文以期为未来南海油气勘探战略部署和选区提供参考。
关键词:  中—新生代|油气藏|沉积有利相带|地质调查工程|南海
DOI:10.12029/gc20200508
分类号:P736.22+3
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目(DD20160138,DD20190577,DD20190216,DD20190209)资助。
Characteristics of stratigraphic sedimentary in the south-north continental margin basin of the South China Sea and its differential control on hydrocarbon accumulation
XIONG Liangli1, YANG Chupeng1, WU Jiaoqi1, GAO Hongfang1, YAO Yongjian1, LI Xuejie1, ZHU Xueying2, CHENG Zihua3
1.MNR Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources, Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou 510075, Guangdong, China;2.College of Marine Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences(Wuhan), Wuhan 420074, Hubei, China;3.Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, Guangdong, China
Abstract:
As the largest marginal sea in western Pacific, the South China Sea is rich in oil and gas resources, and the difference in hydrocarbon occurrence laws between the north and south is large. On the basis of the systematic analysis of the MesozoicCenozoic strata and sedimentary facies development characteristics of the South China Sea, the petroleum geological conditions of the typical petroliferous basins in the south and north of the South China Sea were compared and analyzed. The results show that the reconstruction of the sedimentary strata of the ancient South China Sea by the opening process of the South China Sea causes the existing residual strata to separate from north to south, mainly distributed in the Pearl River Mouth Basin and the Tainan Basin in the north, and in the Lile Basin in the south. It is inferred that there are Mesozoic-Cenozoic hydrocarbon accumulation models of “selfgeneration and self-storage”, “new-generation and paleo-storage” or “paleo-generation and new-storage”. The Cenozoic oil and gas reservoirs in the South China Sea are under the tectonic stress background of “north extension and south extrusion”. The distribution of large clastic reservoirs has been controlled by the paleo-water system since Paleogene. Regional tectonic movements and sea level change controlled the development of Miocene carbonate reservoirs. The deep-water canyons, deep-sea fans, and fan-delta sedimentary systems controlled by paleo-geomorphology since the early Cenozoic have spawned potential deep-water reservoirs. In a word, the south and north sedimentary strata of the South China Sea have their own characteristics, and the hydrocarbon accumulation conditions have their own advantages, but they all have good prospects for oil and gas exploration. This paper is expected to provide reference for future strategic deployment and selection of oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea.
Key words:  Mesozoic-Cenozoic|oil and gas reservoirs|sedimentary favorable facies|geological survey engineering|South China Sea