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引用本文:梅西,李学杰,密蓓蓓,赵利,王中波,钟和贤,杨浩,黄湘通,何梦颖,熊伟,张勇. 中国海域表层沉积物分布规律及沉积分异模式[J]. 中国地质, 2020, 47(5): 1447-1462.
MEI Xi,LI Xuejie,MI Beibei,ZHAO Li,WANG Zhongbo,ZHONG Hexian,YANG Hao,HUANG Xiangtong,HE Mengying,XIONG Wei,ZHANG Yong. Distribution regularity and sedimentary differentiation patterns of China seas surface sediments[J]. Geology in China, 2020, 47(5): 1447-1462(in Chinese with English abstract).
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中国海域表层沉积物分布规律及沉积分异模式
梅西1, 李学杰2, 密蓓蓓1, 赵利2, 王中波1, 钟和贤2, 杨浩3, 黄湘通4, 何梦颖5, 熊伟6, 张勇1
1.青岛海洋地质研究所, 山东 青岛 266071;2.广州海洋地质调查局, 广东 广州 510075;3.中国地质大学 (武汉), 湖北 武汉 430074;4.同济大学, 上海 210092;5.南京师范大学, 江苏 南京 210023;6.中国海洋大学, 山东 青岛 266100
摘要:
中国海域拥有宽广的大陆架,同时还有陆坡和深海盆,有众多河流入海并输入巨量的陆源物质,沉积物记录了海陆变迁、环流变化、海平面升降、物质输送和气候变化等环境信息。沉积物的粒度特征可以反映沉积动力、物质来源和搬运距离等,可以通过沉积物粒度组成、参数及各种图解来研究沉积环境的变化。前人对中国海域表层沉积物的粒度分布特征展开了大量的研究,取得了丰富的研究成果,但这些研究多集中在某一海域或区域,缺乏对整个中国海域的表层沉积物类型的宏观系统认识。本文基于中国地质调查局“1:100万海洋区域地质调查项目”获取了中国海域4300个海底表层沉积物样品,通过沉积物粒度分析,结合前人已发表资料,对中国海域表层沉积物的沉积类型特征、物质来源和运移模式等开展了系统的研究。本文把浅海和半深海沉积物按照含砾石和不含砾石主要划分出5个和7个沉积物类型,深海沉积物主要划分了9个沉积类型,研究结果表明:中国海域表层沉积物沉积类型多样、来源复杂,主要受控于物质来源、水动力条件和地形地貌的变化,在东部海域总体呈现“大江大河-宽缓陆架-残留慢速沉积”的条带状沉积分异模式,而在南部海域呈现的是“短源性河流-多类型陆架-重力流快速沉积”的环带状沉积分异模式。本文的结果对研究中国海域沉积物的宏观分布规律提供了基础资料,对理解海洋沉积动力过程具有重要意义,同时沉积物粒度的特征对海底砂矿分布也具有指示意义。
关键词:  粒度|物质来源|海底砂矿|海洋地质调查工程|中国海
DOI:10.12029/gc20200511
分类号:P736.21+1
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目(DD20160137,DD20160138,DD20190208)资助。
Distribution regularity and sedimentary differentiation patterns of China seas surface sediments
MEI Xi1, LI Xuejie2, MI Beibei1, ZHAO Li2, WANG Zhongbo1, ZHONG Hexian2, YANG Hao3, HUANG Xiangtong4, HE Mengying5, XIONG Wei6, ZHANG Yong1
1.Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China;2.Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou 510075, China;3.China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China;4.Tongji University, Shanghai 210092, China;5.Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China;6.Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong, China
Abstract:
China seas have broad continental shelf, continental slope and deep sea basin, with many rivers entering the seas and transporting a huge amount of terrigenous materials into these seas. The sediments record such environmental information as sealand interactions, sea circulation changes, sea level change, material transport and climate change. The grain size characteristics of sediments can reflect such information as sedimentary dynamics, material sources and transport distance, and the changes of sedimentary environment can be studied through the grain size composition, parameters and various diagrams. Previous researchers have carried out lots of studies concerning the grain size distribution characteristics of China seas surface sediments, and obtained many achievements. However, most of these studies were concentrated on a certain sea area or region, lacking a macroscopic and systematic understanding of the sedimentary types in the whole sea area of China. Based on "1:1 000 000 marine regional geological survey project" performed by China Geological Survey, the authors collected 4300 samples of surface sediments from China seas and, through the sediment grain size analysis in combination with data available, studied characteristics of sea surface sediment deposition type, material sources and migration patterns in China seas. In this paper, the shallow sea and bathyal sediments are mainly divided into 5 and 7 sediment types according to the gravel bearing and non-gravel bearing nature, and the deep-sea sediments are mainly divided into 9 sediment types. The results show that sea surface sediment deposition exhibits varied types and complicated sources, which is mainly controlled by the material sources, hydrodynamic condition and the change of landform. Generally the eastern sea areas exhibit "large rivers-broad shelf-residual slow deposition" banded sedimentary differentiation model, whereas in the sea areas of the South China Sea, there is "short source river-multi-type shelf-rapid gravity flow deposits" ring banded sedimentary differentiation model. The results obtained by the authors provide basic data for studying the macroscopic distribution of marine sediments in China seas and are of great significance for understanding the dynamic process of marine sedimentation. At the same time, the distribution characteristics of sediment grain size also have an indicative significance for sea placers distribution.
Key words:  grain size|material sources|sea placers distribution|marine geological survey engineering|China seas