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引用本文:王志恒,梁永平,唐春雷,申豪勇,赵春红,郭芳芳,谢浩,赵一. 北方断流岩溶大泉复流的生态修复模式与复流措施效果的定量评价——以山西太原晋祠泉为例[J]. 中国地质, 2020, 47(6): 1726-1738.
WANG Zhiheng,LIANG Yongping,TANG Chunlei,SHEN Haoyong,ZHAO Chunhong,GUO FangFang,XIE Hao,ZHAO Yi. Ecological restoration pattern and quantitative evaluation of recirculation measures for northern discontinuous karst spring: A case study of Jinci Spring in Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province[J]. Geology in China, 2020, 47(6): 1726-1738(in Chinese with English abstract).
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北方断流岩溶大泉复流的生态修复模式与复流措施效果的定量评价——以山西太原晋祠泉为例
王志恒1,2, 梁永平1,2, 唐春雷1,2, 申豪勇1,2, 赵春红1,2, 郭芳芳1,2, 谢浩1,2, 赵一1,2
1.中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所;2.自然资源部、广西壮族自治区岩溶动力重点实验室, 广西 桂林 541004
摘要:
岩溶大泉是中国北方岩溶地下水的主要天然排泄形式,它们集供水、旅游、生态等功能于一体,是重要的自然资源。自20世纪后期,受自然、特别是人类大规模开发、采煤等活动的影响,有近30%的岩溶大泉断流,其中不乏中外闻名的大泉。十七大以来,各地政府积极响应党中央国务院加强生态文明建设的号召,启动了一些重要断流岩溶大泉复流的生态修复工程。本文根据北方断流岩溶大泉的结构模式与成因,提出了包括利用上游水库蓄水、调节渗漏段河水流量、在河流渗漏段实施人工增补工程、在岩溶地下水强径流带和排泄区采取关井压采、封堵泉口下游自流井、对煤矿带压区进行监控、补给区分区植树造林措施的复流模式;以山西太原晋祠泉为实例,在对各项复流措施效果进行定量优化评价的基础上,得出抬高汾河二库水位至设计标高、关闭岩溶地下水强径流带内白家庄煤矿降压排水井、封堵处置泉口下游自流井是近期经济可行的有效措施的结论;最后利用建立的泉域地下水渗流数值模型,预测实施三项近期措施后,晋祠泉水可望在2年左右的时间实现复流,该结论以期为晋祠泉及北方岩溶区其他同类型岩溶泉水生态复流工作提供示范与参考。
关键词:  生态修复模式  复流措施  定量评价  水文地质调查工程  晋祠泉  山西省
DOI:10.12029/gc20200610
分类号:P641.69
基金项目:自然资源部中国地质调查项目(DD20160242,DD20190334)、中国地质科学院基本科研项目(2020010,JYYWF20182004,2017023)及国家自然科学基金项目(41672253,41902256)共同资助。
Ecological restoration pattern and quantitative evaluation of recirculation measures for northern discontinuous karst spring: A case study of Jinci Spring in Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province
WANG Zhiheng1,2, LIANG Yongping1,2, TANG Chunlei1,2, SHEN Haoyong1,2, ZHAO Chunhong1,2, GUO FangFang1,2, XIE Hao1,2, ZHAO Yi1,2
1.Institute of Karst Geology, CAGS, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China;2.Karst Dynamics Laboratory, MLR&GZAR, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China
Abstract:
Karst spring is the main natural discharge form of karst groundwater in northern China and is an important natural resource with the functions of water supply, tourism and ecological environment. Nearly 30% of karst springs have been dried up, influenced by natural factors, coal mining, especially by human beings'large-scale development and utilization of karst groundwater since the last century. The dried-up springs also include some world-famous karst springs. Since the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), local governments have actively responded to the call of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council to strengthen ecological civilization construction, and hence ecological restoration projects have been initiated for the reflow of some important karst springs. Based on the structural mode and genesis of the karst springs in northern China, this paper proposes the spring reflow pattern, which includes the following measures:regulating the water flow of the leakage section by using the water storage of the upstream reservoir, implementing artificial supplementary projects in the seepage section of the river, closing the wells in karst groundwater strong runoff zones and drainage areas, blocking artesian wells downstream of the spring water outlet, monitoring drainage in coal mines under pressure, and conducting afforestation measures in recharge zones. Taking Jinci spring in Taiyuan of Shanxi Province as an example and based on the quantitative optimization evaluation of the effects of these reflow measures, it is concluded that raising the storage level of the Fenhe Second Reservoir to the design elevation, closing the drainage well of Baijiazhuang coal mine in the strong runoff zone of karst groundwater to reduce water pressure, and plugging and disposing of artesian well downstream of spring outlet seem to be economically feasible and effective measures in the near future. Finally, by using the numerical model of spring groundwater, it is predicted that, after the implementation of these measures, Jinci spring water is expected to reflow in about two years. The results can provide demonstration and reference for other karst springs of the same type in northern China.
Key words:  ecological restoration model  reflow measure  quantitative evaluation  hydrogeological survey engineering  Jinci spring  Shanxi Province