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引用本文:王尧,陈睿山,郭迟辉,夏子龙. 近40年黄河流域资源环境格局变化分析与地质工作建议[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(1): 1-20.
WANG Yao,CHEN Ruishan,GUO Chihui,XIA Zilong. Changes of resource and environmental pattern of the Yellow River Basin in the past 40 years and suggestions on geological work[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(1): 1-20(in Chinese with English abstract).
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近40年黄河流域资源环境格局变化分析与地质工作建议
王尧1, 陈睿山2, 郭迟辉3, 夏子龙2
1.中国地质调查局发展研究中心, 北京 100037;2.华东师范大学, 上海 200241;3.中国地质大学(北京), 北京 100083
摘要:
20世纪80年代以来,自然演变与强烈的人类活动叠加,致使黄河流域资源环境格局发生了显著变化,进而影响其开发利用布局,面临诸多资源短缺、环境退化和生态破坏问题,急需从地球系统科学的视角深入研究流域资源环境的格局变化特点,识别重大资源环境问题,提出解决方案,为黄河流域可持续发展提供决策依据。本研究以"山水林田湖草"生命共同体理念和地球系统科学理论为指导,利用多源多时相调查研究数据,分析黄河流域1970-2015年近40年气候、山区、水文等十一大类资源环境格局变化及区域分异规律,识别重大地质资源环境问题,提出地质工作建议。研究结果表明:黄河流域气候整体暖干化趋势明显,局部出现暖湿现象;山区生态系统脆弱、逐步恢复,局部人类活动影响剧烈;水体与湿地面积总体减少,近年呈增加趋势,径流量呈减少趋势,部分干支流污染严重,水生生物多样性减少;农田面积呈下降趋势,下游地区农田生产潜力增加明显;植被覆盖呈现整体缓慢升高、局部退化趋势;草地面积持续减少,草地生态系统退化明显;荒漠化扩展态势得到遏制,总体形势依然严峻;自然灾害频发,水害严重,地质灾害聚集分布,形成陇中黄土高原和陇南山地两个高发区;城镇建设用地面积持续上升,由下游地区向中上游扩散,中上游呈现出由轴线连接的多个核心的组团分布特征;人口分布重心进一步向东偏离,沿中心城市、干流、交通干线增加;GDP整体呈现上涨趋势,呈现由东向西递减、由干流或主支流沿岸向两边递减、由中心城市向周围递减。为保护黄河流域生态环境、促进高质量发展,解决黄河流域面临的复杂多样的地质资源环境问题,建议地质工作以地球系统科学理论为指导对黄河流域重大地质资源环境问题进行系统调查研究;以地球系统科学研究方法为框架,进行跨学科协作,整合区域性地质调查工作。
关键词:  黄河流域  资源环境格局变化  生态环境保护  国土空间  地质调查工程
DOI:10.12029/gc20210101
分类号:P66;P964
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41641011)、中国地质调查局项目(DD20190427、DD20190463)及陕西省地质调查项目(201917)联合资助。
Changes of resource and environmental pattern of the Yellow River Basin in the past 40 years and suggestions on geological work
WANG Yao1, CHEN Ruishan2, GUO Chihui3, XIA Zilong2
1.Development and Research Center of China Geological Survey, Beijing 100037, China;2.East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;3.China University of Geosciences(Bejing), Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
Since the 1980s, natural evolution and intense human activities have superimposed a significant change in the pattern of resources and environment in the Yellow River Basin, which further affects its development and utilization distribution and leads to a lot of problems such as resource shortage, environmental degradation and ecological destruction. From the perspective of earth system science, it is urgent to study the changes of the resources and environment pattern in the Yellow River Basin, identify major resources and environment problems, and put forward solutions, so as to provide decision-making basis for the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. With "life community of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes and grasses" concept and earth system science theory as the instruction, according to the investigation of multisource and multiphase data, this paper analyzes the changes in eleven major resources environmental patterns and regional differentiation in the Yellow River Basin in the last 40 years from 1970 to 2015, including climate, mountainous area and hydrology, identifies the major geological resources and environment problems, and advances some suggestions on the geological work. The results show that the climate of the Yellow River Basin as a whole has an obvious trend of warming and drying, and the phenomenon of warming and humidity appears locally. In recent years, the total area of water and wetland has been decreasing, and the runoff has been decreasing. Some of the main tributaries are seriously polluted, and the aquatic biodiversity has been reduced. In addition, the mountain ecosystem is fragile and gradually restored, the impact of local human activities is intense, the farmland area shows a downward trend, and the farmland production potential in the downstream area is increasing obviously. Moreover, vegetation cover shows a slow increase trend and local degradation, grassland area continues to decrease, grassland ecosystem degradation is obvious, the trend of desertification expansion has been contained, and the overall situation is still grim. In this case, frequent natural disasters, serious water disasters and concentrated geological disasters have led to the formation of such two high incidence areas in southern Gansu as Loess Plateau and Mountains. The continuous rise of urban construction land area leads to the spread of land area from the downstream area to the middle and upper reaches, which shows the cluster distribution characteristics of multiple construction land cores connected by axes. As a result, the center of population distribution further deviates to the east and increases along the central city, trunk stream and traffic lines. The overall GDP shows an upward trend, but manifests a decline from east to west, from the main stream or tributary coast to both sides and from the central city to the surrounding. In order to protect the ecological environment of the Yellow River Basin, promote the high-quality development and solve the diverse geological resources and environmental problems, it is suggested that geological work should be guided by the theory of earth system science to carry out systematic investigation and research on the major geological resources and environmental problems of the Yellow River Basin. Based on the research method of earth system science, we should carry out interdisciplinary cooperation and integrate regional geological survey.
Key words:  Yellow River Basin  change of resource and environment pattern  ecological environment protection  national space  geological survey engineering