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引用本文:张海坤,胡鹏,姜军胜,程湘,王建雄,刘江涛,向鹏. 铝土矿分布特点、主要类型与勘查开发现状[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(1): 68-81.
ZHANG Haikun,HU Peng,JIANG Junsheng,CHENG Xiang,WANG Jianxiong,LIU Jiangtao,XIANG Peng. Distribution, genetic types and current situation of exploration and development of bauxite resources[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(1): 68-81(in Chinese with English abstract).
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铝土矿分布特点、主要类型与勘查开发现状
张海坤, 胡鹏, 姜军胜, 程湘, 王建雄, 刘江涛, 向鹏
中国地质调查局武汉地质调查中心, 武汉 430205
摘要:
铝土矿是金属铝的主要来源,近年来,随着经济社会快速发展和城镇化逐步推进,中国铝需求量逐年走高。文章简要概括了铝土矿的分布特点、主要类型及主要资源国的铝土矿分布情况,着重介绍了最近几年铝土矿勘查开发的新进展,以深化对铝土矿空间分布、地质特征的认识,把握铝土矿的勘查开发趋势。根据矿石成因,铝土矿主要分为红土型和岩溶型两类,前者主要分布在非洲西部、南美洲北部、印度、东南亚及澳大利亚北部和西南部,后者主要分布在南欧、加勒比海地区、亚洲西部和中国。铝土矿勘查方面,在铝土矿储量大国中,几内亚、俄罗斯、澳大利亚主要以对大型成熟铝土矿山的扩边增储工作为主,巴西、加纳、牙买加等国则主要以勘探新区为主。铝土矿开发方面,目前全球铝土矿主要生产国为澳大利亚、几内亚和中国,2019年三国合计铝土矿产量约占世界总产量的70%。2020年上半年,受新冠肺炎疫情影响,主要金属价格出现恐慌性大幅下跌。虽然近期主要金属价格有震荡反弹趋势,但以美国、巴西、印度等为代表的世界主要经济体仍深陷疫情泥潭,英国、法国、意大利等欧盟国家仍面临较大防控压力,全球也存在爆发第二波疫情的可能,在此背景下,铝土矿勘查开发形势仍存在很大变数。
关键词:  铝土矿  空间分布  主要类型  勘查开发现状
DOI:10.12029/gc20210105
分类号:P618.45
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目(DD20201153)资助。
Distribution, genetic types and current situation of exploration and development of bauxite resources
ZHANG Haikun, HU Peng, JIANG Junsheng, CHENG Xiang, WANG Jianxiong, LIU Jiangtao, XIANG Peng
Wuhan Center, China Geological Survey, Wuhan 430205
Abstract:
Bauxite is the main source of metal aluminum. In recent years, with the rapid economic and social development and the gradual progress of urbanization, China's aluminum demand is increasing year by year. In order to deepen the understanding of the spatial distribution and geological characteristics of bauxite and grasp the trend of bauxite exploration and development, this paper briefly summarizes the distribution characteristics of bauxite, the main types and the distribution of bauxite in the main resource countries, and emphatically introduces the new progress of bauxite exploration and development in recent years. Based on ore genesis, bauxite is divided into two types, lateritic type and karst type. The former is mainly distributed in western Africa, north South America, India, Southeast Asia, northern and southwestern Australia, while the latter primarily occurs in southern Europe, Caribbean region, western Asia and China. As to the exploration of bauxite, among the main bauxite-rich countries, Guinea, Russia and Australia focus on reserve addition of large mature mines, while Brazil, Ghana and Jamaica on exploration of new prospective areas. As for bauxite development, Australia, Guinea and China are currently the world's leading producers of bauxite, which together accounted for about 70% of the world's total production in 2019. In the first half of 2020, there was a panic drop in prices of major metals due to the COVID-19 epidemic. Despite the recent rebound trend in the prices of major metals, the United States, Brazil, India and other major economies in the world are still in the grip of the epidemic; the United Kingdom, France, Italy and other European Union countries are still facing great pressure to prevent the epidemic, and there is also the possibility of a second wave of the epidemic in the world. In this context, bauxite exploration and development situation is still very variable.
Key words:  bauxite  spatial distribution  main types  current situation of exploration and development