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引用本文:吴发富,王建雄,刘江涛,曾国平,向鹏,胡鹏,向文帅. 磷矿的分布、特征与开发现状[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(1): 82-101.
WU Fafu,WANG Jianxiong,LIU Jiangtao,ZENG Guoping,XIANG Peng,HU Peng,XIANG Wenshuai. Distribution, geology and development status of phosphate resources[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(1): 82-101(in Chinese with English abstract).
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磷矿的分布、特征与开发现状
吴发富, 王建雄, 刘江涛, 曾国平, 向鹏, 胡鹏, 向文帅
中国地质调查局武汉地质调查中心, 湖北 武汉 430205
摘要:
世界磷矿储量近695亿t(2019年),但分布不均,磷矿储量最为丰富的北非地区集中了全球80%以上的磷矿资源。该区域的摩洛哥和西撒哈拉是世界磷矿资源最为丰富的国家,2019年其磷矿储量达500亿t,占世界的近72%。目前世界上主要利用的磷矿类型为沉积型磷块岩矿,其最主要的成矿时代为震旦-寒武纪和中生代-新生代,前者以中国西南部大量产出的海相磷矿床为代表,后者以从摩洛哥和西撒哈拉到埃及一带的北非磷矿成矿省最为典型。2019年排名世界前10位的产磷国为中国、摩洛哥和西撒哈拉、美国、俄罗斯、约旦、沙特阿拉伯、越南、巴西、埃及和秘鲁,磷矿总产量逾2亿t,占世界总产量的89.29%。传统上美国、俄罗斯、摩洛哥和中国等是世界磷矿的主要出口地区,但随着北非和中东地区磷矿开发的不断深入和传统供给区资源的消耗,近年来磷矿供应中心向北非、中东地区转移。2018年世界磷矿粉出口前10位的国家有5个位于北非和中东地区,且北非的摩洛哥是第一大磷矿出口国。在磷肥的进出口方面,近年世界磷肥进口国主要有印尼、巴西、美国、马来西亚、法国、澳大利亚、孟加拉国、罗马尼亚、巴拉圭和荷兰等,出口国有中国、埃及、摩洛哥、以色列、澳大利亚、荷兰、黎巴嫩、墨西哥、秘鲁、阿根廷等。其中,曾经的磷肥出口大国美国,在2006年后逐渐转为磷肥进口国;磷矿进口大国印度的磷肥近年来基本实现自给。中国以不占优势的磷矿储量(2019年为32亿t,占世界储量的4.61%),在磷肥生产上除满足本国需要外还保持世界第一的磷肥出口,近10年来的磷肥出口量都占世界的18%以上,磷矿资源消耗速度快,资源形势严峻。
关键词:  磷矿  地质特征  储量  产量  世界分布
DOI:10.12029/gc20210106
分类号::P618.42
基金项目:中国商务部对外援助项目(201426)和中国地质调查局项目(DD20190443)联合资助。
Distribution, geology and development status of phosphate resources
WU Fafu, WANG Jianxiong, LIU Jiangtao, ZENG Guoping, XIANG Peng, HU Peng, XIANG Wenshuai
Wuhan Center, China Geological Survey, Wuhan 430205, Hubei, China
Abstract:
The world's phosphate ore reserve nearly totals 69.5 billion tons (2019), but its distribution is uneven, more than 80% of which is concentrated in North Africa. Especially, Morocco and Western Sahara are the world's richest countries in phosphate resources, with reserves of 50 billion tons in 2019, accounting for nearly 72 percent of the world's total. At present, the sedimentary phosphate deposit used in the world is the most important type, and most of these deposits were formed in two periods, Sinian-Cambrian and Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The former is represented by the large amount of Marine phosphate deposits produced in southwest China, while the latter is most typical of the North African phosphorous metallogenic province from Morocco and Western Sahara to Egypt. In 2019, the top 10 phosphorous producing countries were China, Morocco and Western Sahara, the United States, Russia, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Brazil, Egypt and Peru, with a total phosphate ore output of more than 200 million tons, accounting for 89.29 percent of the world's total. Traditionally, the United States, Russia, Morocco and China are the main exporters of phosphate rock. However, with the development of the phosphorus resources in North Africa and the Middle East, coupled with the continuous reduction of phosphate resources in traditional supply areas, North Africa and the Middle East have gradually become a production and supply center of the world. Five of the world's top 10 phosphate rock exporters in 2018 were in North Africa and the Middle East, and Morocco in North Africa is the largest phosphate rock exporter. In terms of phosphate fertilizers, in recent years, the world's importers mainly include Indonesia, Brazil, the United States, Malaysia, France, Australia, Bangladesh, Romania, Paraguay, and the Netherlands; exporters are China, Egypt, Morocco, Israel, Australia, the Netherlands, Lebanon, Mexico, Peru and Argentina, etc. The United States, which was once a major exporter of phosphate fertilizer, gradually turned into an importer after 2006; India, a big importer of phosphate ore, has basically achieved self-sufficiency in phosphate fertilizer in recent years. With its undominant phosphate ore reserves (3.2 billion tons in 2019, accounting for 4.61% of the world's reserves), China is the world's largest exporter in terms of phosphate fertilizer production in addition to meeting its own needs. In the past 10 years, its phosphate ore resources account for more than 18% of the world's total phosphate fertilizer exports. For China, phosphate ore resources consumption speed is fast, its resource situation is not optimistic.
Key words:  Phosphate  geological features  reserves  production  distribution