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引用本文:杨梦莲,李江海,王洪浩,陶崇智,章雨. 新疆库车西部古近系奥奇克盐底辟地质地貌特征及构造形成模式[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(1): 129-138.
YANG Menglian,LI Jianghai,WANG Honghao,TAO Chongzhi,ZHANG Yu. Geological landform and structure formation model of the Paleogene Ochirbat salt diapir in the western Kuqa, Xinjiang[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(1): 129-138(in Chinese with English abstract).
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新疆库车西部古近系奥奇克盐底辟地质地貌特征及构造形成模式
杨梦莲1, 李江海1, 王洪浩1, 陶崇智2, 章雨1
1.造山带与地壳演化教育部重点实验室 北京大学地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871;2.中国石化 石油勘探开发研究院, 北京 100083
摘要:
库车前陆冲断带西部古近系奥奇克盐底辟是中国最典型的盐底辟构造,可作为盐构造研究的天然实验室。本文在前人研究的基础上,通过详细的野外填图,同时辅以遥感解译、地震解释和合成孔径雷达干涉测量(InSAR)技术,探讨了奥奇克盐底辟盐喀斯特地貌特征,并分析了其形成机制及流变模式。奥奇克盐底辟表面盐喀斯特构造发育,在风化面上可见大量的溶洞、溶蚀冲沟构造,在新鲜面上可见梳状溶痕、微型峰丛等构造样式,此外,溶蚀坍塌等机械侵蚀构造也是本区常见的盐喀斯特构造类型。奥奇克盐底辟在形成过程中受逆冲断层、盐上地层的剥蚀作用、差异负载作用及盐岩自身的浮力作用的控制,共经历了逆冲盐底辟、侵蚀盐底辟、主动盐底辟和被动盐底辟4个主要阶段。盐岩喷出地表后,在重力作用下由核部向四周流动形成盐冰川,季节性河流的存在限制了盐底辟向东侧、东北侧及北侧传播,导致盐底辟呈现单侧增生的流变模式。
关键词:  库车前陆冲断带  奥奇克盐底辟  盐喀斯特  构造类型  地质调查工程  新疆
DOI:10.12029/gc20210109
分类号:P542
基金项目:国家科技重大专项“南大西洋两岸盆地分析与油气资源评价”(2016ZX05033-001)资助。
Geological landform and structure formation model of the Paleogene Ochirbat salt diapir in the western Kuqa, Xinjiang
YANG Menglian1, LI Jianghai1, WANG Honghao1, TAO Chongzhi2, ZHANG Yu1
1.The Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, Ministry of Education, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871;2.SINOPEC Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
As the Paleogene Ochirbat salt diapir in the western Kuqa foreland thrust belt is the most typical salt diapir structure in China, it can serves as a natural laboratory for the study of salt structure. Based on previous researches, the methods of field mapping, seismic interpretation, remote sensing images interpretation and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) technique were used to analyse the salt karst landform characteristics, formation mechanism and rheological model of the Ochirbat salt diapir. The salt karst landforms are mainly developed on the surface of the salt diapir. Karst caves and gullies can be seen on the weathering surface of the diapir, while rillen karrens and miniature karst peak cluster can be seen on the fresh surface. Further more, collapse structures belonging to salt karst landforms can also be regularly seen in the diapir. The formation of the salt diapir was controlled by many factors, including the thrust fault, the erosion of the overburden, the differential loading and buoyancy, and the evolution process of the diapir can be divided into 4 main stages, including thrust piercement, erosion piercement, active piercement and passive piercement stages. It is summarized that after coming out from the underground, the salt flowed from the core to the periphery of the diapir under the gravity, forming salt glacier, and the seasonal river restricted the salt spreading to east, northeast and north directions, resulting in the asymmetric rheological model of the diapir.
Key words:  Kuqa foreland thrust belt  Ochirbat salt diapir  salt karst landform  tectonic type  geological survey engineering  Xinjiang