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引用本文:李政红,李亚松,郝奇琛,李剑锋,朱玉晨. 福建厦门市硝酸型地下水特征、成因及其治理措施建议[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(5): 1441-1452.
LI Zhenghong,LI Yasong,HAO Qichen,LI Jianfeng,ZHU Yuchen. Characteristics, genesis and treatment measures of NO3 type groundwater in Xiamen, Fujian Province[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(5): 1441-1452(in Chinese with English abstract).
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福建厦门市硝酸型地下水特征、成因及其治理措施建议
李政红1,2, 李亚松1, 郝奇琛1,2, 李剑锋1, 朱玉晨1
1.中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所, 河北 石家庄 050061;2.自然资源部地下水科学与工程重点实验室, 河北 石家庄 050061
摘要:
地下水硝酸盐污染是世界性水环境问题。地下水硝酸盐绝对含量的增加,引起水质恶化,而其相对含量的增加,改变了地下水的水化学特征。在某些地区NO3-成为地下水中的主要阴离子之一,用"硝酸型水"命名这种新的地下水化学类型,目前正在逐渐被学者所接受。本研究通过分析厦门市平原区地下水中硝酸型水分布特征和影响因素,探讨了硝酸型水的水化学指示意义。结果表明,厦门市地下水已受到硝酸盐氮污染。在全区采集的87组地下水样品中,硝酸型水占比36.8%,主要分布于风化残积平原区,东部翔安区和同安区已形成较大面状分布,西部集美区和海沧区分布较少,且呈点状或局部小面积分布。硝酸型水主要存在于氧化沉积环境,具有低pH、低TDS和低硬度特征。风化残坡积含水层的酸性土壤、地下水径流缓慢和浅层地下水埋深浅等特征为地下水NO3-富集提供了有利的环境条件。人类生活污水、垃圾渗滤液下渗、农业施肥等是地下水硝酸盐污染的主要来源。建议开展地下水硝酸盐污染源识别研究,针对不同污染来源采取完善污染管网建设、农村改厕、科学施肥等措施,从源头上防治污染。
关键词:  硝酸型水  分布特征  影响因素  氮污染  地质调查工程  厦门  福建
DOI:10.12029/gc20210510
分类号:X523
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目“厦漳泉同城化地区综合地质调查”(DD20190303)资助。
Characteristics, genesis and treatment measures of NO3 type groundwater in Xiamen, Fujian Province
LI Zhenghong1,2, LI Yasong1, HAO Qichen1,2, LI Jianfeng1, ZHU Yuchen1
1.Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, CAGS, Shijiazhuang 150061, Hebei, China;2.Key Laboratory of Groundwater Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Natural Resources, Shijiazhuang 050061, Hebei, China
Abstract:
Groundwater nitrate pollution is a worldwide water environment problem. The increase of nitrate concentration in groundwater causes the deterioration of water quality, while the increase of its relative contents changes the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater. NO3- becomes one of the main anions in groundwater in some areas, and the name of "NO3 type water" for this new chemical type of groundwater is gradually accepted by scholars. Based on the analysis of the distribution, characteristics and influencing factors of NO3 type water in shallow groundwater in plain area of Xiamen City, the significance of NO3 type water was discussed. The results show that the groundwater in Xiamen has been polluted by nitrate nitrogen. NO3 type water comprising 36.8% of all 87 samples is mainly distributed in weathered residual plain. The eastern Xiang'an and Tong'an districts have formed a relatively large planar distribution, while the western Jimei and Haicang districts have a small distribution, and the distribution is point-like or local small area. NO3 type water mainly exists in oxidation deposition environment with low pH, low TDS and low hardness. The weathered residual aquifer's characteristics of acid soil、slow runoff and shallow water table provide favorable environmental conditions for NO3- enrichment in groundwater. Human sewage, landfill leachate infiltration and agricultural fertilization are the main sources of nitrate pollution in groundwater. It is suggested to carry out research on groundwater nitrate source identification. According to different sources of pollution, measures such as improving the construction of pollution pipe network, improving toilets in rural areas and scientific fertilization should be taken to prevent and control pollution from the source.
Key words:  NO3 type water  distribution characteristic  influence factor  nitrogen pollution  geological survey engineering  Xiamen  Fujian Province