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引用本文:马冰,贾凌霄,于洋,王欢. 世界地热能开发利用现状与展望[J]. 中国地质, 2021, 48(6): 1734-1747.
MA Bing,JIA Lingxiao,YU Yang,WANG Huan. The development and utilization of geothermal energy in the world[J]. Geology in China, 2021, 48(6): 1734-1747(in Chinese with English abstract).
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世界地热能开发利用现状与展望
马冰, 贾凌霄, 于洋, 王欢
中国地质调查局地学文献中心, 中国地质图书馆, 北京 100083
摘要:
地热能作为一种零碳、清洁能源,其开发利用对于碳中和具有重要价值。2015-2020年,全球新增地热发电约3649 GW,增长约27%;地热直接利用总装机容量增长52.0%。两者之和,所用热能比2015年增长72.3%。全球每年地热直接利用可防止7810万t碳和2.526亿t CO2排放到大气中。世界地热能发展呈现五大趋势:(1)发展非常规地热系统;(2)向海上地热资源开发进军;(3)降低钻探成本与石油热能协同生产;(4)加大浅层地热能的开发利用;(5)加强含水层热能储存技术研发。
关键词:  地热能  地热发电  地热能直接利用  非常规地热系统  热能储存  碳达峰  碳中和
DOI:10.12029/gc20210606
分类号:F426.1;TD98
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目(DD20190414)资助。
The development and utilization of geothermal energy in the world
MA Bing, JIA Lingxiao, YU Yang, WANG Huan
Geoscience Documentation Center. CGS, National Geological Library of China, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
As a kind of zero carbon and clean energy, the development and utilization of geothermal energy is of great value for carbon neutralization. From 2015 to 2020, the global geothermal power generation increased by about 3649 GW, an increase of about 27%. Total installed capacity of geothermal utilization increased by 52.0%. The sum of the two, the used heat energy increased by 72.3% over 2015. The direct utilization of geothermal energy in the world can prevent 78.1 million tons of carbon and 252.6 million tons of CO2 from being emitted into the atmosphere every year. The world geothermal energy development presents the following five trends:development of unconventional geothermal system, development of offshore geothermal resources, reduction of drilling cost and cooperation of thermal energy production with petroleum, increase of the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy, strengthening of the research and development of aquifer thermal energy storage technology.
Key words:  geothermal energy  geothermal power generation  direct utilization of geothermal energy  unconventional geothermal system  thermal energy storage  carbon peaking  carbon neutralization